Ecological problems and environmental protection Essay

Chapter 1

Ecology is a
really popular word today. But what does it intend? Ecology is a since
which surveies the relationship between all signifiers of life on our
planet and the environment. This word came from Greek & # 8220 ; oikos & # 8221 ;
which means place. The thought of place includes our whole planet, its
population, Nature, animate beings, birds, fish, insets and all other life
existences and even the ambiance around our planet.

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Since ancient times Nature has served
Man giving everything he needs: air to take a breath, nutrient to eat, H2O to
drink, wood for edifice and fuel for heating his place. For 1000s
of old ages people lived in harmoniousness with the environment and it seemed
to them that the resources of nature had no terminal or bound. With the
industrial revolution our negative influence on Nature began to
addition. Large metropoliss with 1000s of steaming, fouling workss
and mills can be found today all over the universe. The
byproducts of their activity pollute the air we breathe the H2O we
imbibe the Fieldss where our harvests are grown. That & # 8217 ; s why those
who live in metropoliss prefer passing their yearss off and their vacations
far from the noise of the metropolis, to be closer to nature. Possibly they
like to take a breath fresh air or to swim in clear H2O because the
ecology is non so hapless as in the metropoliss.

So, pollution is one of the most
firing jobs of presents. Now 1000000s of chimneys, autos, coachs,
trucks all over the universe fumes exhausts and harmful substances into
the ambiance. These poisoned substances pollute everything: air,
land, H2O, birds and animate beings. So, it is normally difficult to take a breath in
the big metropoliss where there are lots workss. Everything there is
covered with carbon black and soil. All these affect detrimentally. Every twelvemonth
the ambiance is polluted by about 1000 dozenss of industrial dust and
other harmful substances. Large metropoliss suffer from smog. Cars with
their engine have become the chief beginning of pollution in industrial
states. Huge woods are being cut down for the demand of industries
in Europe and USA. The loss of the woods upsets the the O
balance of the new barrens. As the consequence some species of animate beings,
birds, fish and workss have disappeared and maintain disappearance.

Water pollution is really serious, excessively.
Ugly rivers of soiled H2O polluted with mill waste, poisoned fish
are all-around us. And polluted air and poisoned H2O lead to the terminal
of the civilisation. So, nowadays a batch of dead lands and lifeless
countries have appeared. Because our actions and traffics can turn the
land to a desert.

Chapter 2

What is the nursery consequence, and is it impacting our clime?

The
nursery consequence is unimpeachably existent, and is indispensable for life
on Earth. It is the consequence of heat soaking up by certain gases in the
atmosphere ( called nursery gases because they trap heat ) and
re-radiation downward of a portion of that heat. Water vapour is the most
of import nursery gas, followed by C dioxide and other hint
gases. Without a natural nursery consequence, the temperature of the
Earth would be about zero grades F ( -18 & # 176 ; C ) alternatively of its
present 57 & # 176 ; F ( 14 & # 176 ; C ) . However, the concern is non with the
fact that we have a nursery consequence, but it is with the inquiry
sing whether human activities are taking to an sweetening of
the nursery consequence.

Are nursery gases increasing?

Human activity has been increasing the concentration of
nursery gases in the ambiance ( largely carbon dioxide from
burning of coal, oil, and gas ; plus a few other hint gases ) .
There is no scientific argument on this point. Pre-industrial degrees of
C dioxide ( anterior to the start of the Industrial Revolution ) were
approximately 280 parts per million by volume ( ppmv ) , and current degrees are
about 370 ppmv. Harmonizing to the IPCC “ concern as usual ”
scenario of C dioxide addition ( IS92a ) in the twenty-first century, we
would anticipate to see a doubling of C dioxide over pre-industrial
degrees around the twelvemonth 2065.

Is the clime heating?

Global surface temperatures have increased
about 0.6 & # 176 ; C ( plus or minus 0.2 & # 176 ; C ) since the late-19th
century, and about one half grade F ( 0.2 to 0.3 & # 176 ; C ) over the past
25 old ages ( the period with the most believable information ) .

The
warming has non been globally unvarying.

Some
countries ( including parts of the southeasterly U.S. ) have cooled. The
recent heat has been greatest over N. America and Eurasia between
40 and 70 & # 176 ; N. Warming, assisted by the record El Ni & # 1089 ; o of
1997-1998, has continued right up to the present.

Linear
tendencies can change greatly depending on the period over which they are
computed. Temperature trends in the lower troposphere ( between approximately
2,500 and 18,000 ft. ) from 1979 to the present, the period for which
Satellite Microwave Sounding Unit informations exist, are little and may be
unrepresentative of longer term tendencies and tendencies closer to the
surface. Furthermore, there are little unsolved differences between
radiosonde and satellite observations of tropospheric temperatures,
though both informations beginnings show little warming tendencies. If one
calculates tendencies get downing with the beginning of radiosonde informations
in the 1950s, there is a little greater warming in the record due to
additions in the 1970s. There are statistical and physical grounds
( e.g. , short record lengths, the transeunt differential effects of
volcanic activity and El Ni & # 1089 ; o, and boundary bed effects ) for
anticipating differences between recent tendencies in surface and lower
tropospheric temperatures, but the exact causes for the differences
are still under probe ( see National Research Council study
“ Accommodating Observations of Global Temperature Change ” ) .

An
enhanced nursery consequence is expected to do chilling in higher
parts of the ambiance because the increased “ blanketing ”
consequence in the lower ambiance holds in more heat. Cooling of the
lower stratosphere ( about 30-35,000ft. ) since 1979 is shown by both
orbiter Microwave Sounding Unit and radiosonde informations, but is larger
in the radiosonde informations.

There has
been a general, but non planetary, inclination toward reduced diurnal
temperature scope ( the difference between high and low day-to-day
temperatures ) over approximately 50 % of the planetary land mass since the center
of the twentieth century. Cloud screen has increased in many of the countries
with decreased diurnal temperature scope.

Relatively
cool surface and tropospheric temperatures, and a comparatively heater
lower stratosphere, were observed in 1992 and 1993, following the
1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The heating reappeared in 1994. A
dramatic planetary heating, at least partially associated with the record
El Ni & # 1089 ; o, took topographic point in 1998. This warming episode is reflected
from the surface to the top of the troposphere.

Indirect
indexs of warming such as borehole temperatures, snow screen, and
glacier recession informations, are in significant understanding with the more
direct indexs of recent heat.

Arctic sea ice has decreased since
1973, when orbiter measurings began but Antarctic sea ice may
hold increased somewhat.

Chapter 3

So, we see
that our environment offers an copiousness of capable affair for
treatment. The jobs and chances of the bluish planet involvement
non merely scientist and futurologists, but besides politicians, industry,
the public & # 8211 ; and above all, immature people! There is barely a
immature individual who is non conserved with the saving of our
natural home ground. To acknowledge environmental jobs and get the hang them,
to cut down and avoid environmental pollution, to detect and develop
ecologically sound engineerings & # 8211 ; there are the indispensable
edifice blocks for our hereafter.

Whether scientist
or politicians, bankers or pupil, whether Greek, Norwegian,
Magyar or Finn & # 8230 ; all are encouraged to do a part
towards protecting the environment. Dedication and the bravery to
alteration one & # 8217 ; s manner of thought are called for.

We are to halt
pollution. So, we can turn workss and trees, to sublimate waste, to
get down pressing runs in order to continue environment For illustration,
in 1989 in Australia, Sydney. In a twelvemonth the same sort of action was
held all over Australia and it was called & # 8220 ; Clean up Australia & # 8221 ;
the undermentioned old ages 110 states hold the similar actions within the
ecological plan of the UNO.

Presents there are many different force per unit area
and involvements groups in many states, which try to happen solutions
to the jobs of pollution at the national and international degree.
So they are groups of people with a common involvement in seeking to pull
the public attending to environment jobs, to act upon the
authorities determinations.

Greenpeace is a
really celebrated force per unit area group. It started working in 1971. Its
central offices are at Amsterdam, but it operates in 25 states
worldwide. The purpose of Greenpeace is to protect wildlife of toxic
wastes, atomic trials.

& # 8220 ; Friends of the Earth & # 8221 ; ( FoE ) is
one of the British force per unit area groups with an international repute.
Its general purpose is to conserve the planet & # 8217 ; s resources and
cut down pollution. FoE was established in 1971 and now it operated in
44 states worldwide. It campaigns among other things, for
recycling and renewable energy, and the devastation of wildlife and
home ground. The chief candidacy issues of the FoE are:

The protection of
all animate beings and workss in danger of extinction.

An terminal to the
devastation of wildlife and home grounds.

A plan of
energy preservation steps, etc.

So, a figure of
runs resulted in:

The prohibition or other
runing in England and Wales

And indefinite
hold in the building of the Commercial East Breeder Reactor,
etc.

But non merely great groups can act upon the job of
pollution. So, different people have their ain sentiments on this
job:

The continued
pollution of the Earth, if unchecked, good finally destroys the
fittingness of this planet as a topographic point for human life. ( B. Commoner ) .

The Earth has
plenty for every adult male & # 8217 ; s need, but non for adult male & # 8217 ; s greed.
( Ganlui ) .

And
I agree with them because it is truly so. And awful illustrations
turn out them.

The
Baltic Sea is a particular instance. Because it is such a little sea and it
becomes soiled really easy. Its wastrel alterations easy through the
shallow passs. Equally many as 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are
100s of mills in these rivers and 1000000s of people live
along them. Quite a batch of large metropoliss lie on its seashore. All these
combined with the active pilotage of the sea of course affects the
province of the sea H2O and the shore line vegetations and zoologies. Peoples
suffer from the wastrel pollution ; malignant neoplastic disease deceases increase people & # 8217 ; s
concern.

And there is no flight from this ecological crisis
without forming a individual organic structure covering with the environmental
jobs, developing and transporting out a countrywide plan of
environmental protection and co-operating with international strategies.

Decision.

Scientists now predict that by the twelvemonth 2050 the
population will be doubled what is today. The fact remains that the
rate of nutrient production fell behind population growing in many of
developing states. The one-year fish gimmick already exceeds what the
universe & # 8216 ; s oceans can successfully prolong. If we go on utilizing our
natural resorts at today & # 8217 ; s rates, we will hold used up the
intire militias of Cooper, natural gas and oil by the twelvemonth 2054.

But
the job in front lie non so much in what we use but in what we
waste. What faces us is non so much a resort crisis as a pollution
crisis. The lone solution is to seek to alter the countries of
ingestion, engineering and population. Changes in engineering must be
baked by slower population growing. And it can be achieved by
instruction in wellness and adult females & # 8217 ; s rights. And there is a small
hope of cut downing ingestion over the following half century.

Introduction.

My paper is devoted to the subject of
the planetary ecological calamities and the environmental protection.
I am giving a reappraisal of assorted planetary jobs such as & # 8220 ; Greenhouse
consequence & # 8221 ; . The purpose of my undertaking is to demo and explicate how
ecological calamities navel our life and and what effect they.

The
beginnings of my work are:

Scientific
books and newspapers

Numerous
cyberspace informations

My undertaking consists of the following
parts: Introduction, 3 chapters, decision, mention list.

Chapter 1 & # 8220 ; Ecological
state of affairs nowadays & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; trades with planetary ecological
jobs such as air, H2O pollution etc.

Chapter
2 & # 8220 ; Global warming & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; is devoted to a job of a
planetary heating called & # 8220 ; nursery consequence & # 8221 ; .

Chapter
3 & # 8220 ; Pressure groups & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; contains in formation about
different force per unit area groups such as & # 8220 ; Greenpeace & # 8221 ; etc.

Decision.

Mention
list.

I suppose thatI suppose that
the subject I choose is really existent presents and I hope that it willthe subject I choose is really existent presents and I hope that it will
contribute to our cognition and will besides hold a practicalcontribute to our cognition and will besides hold a practical
inplimintation in the class.inplimintation in the category.

In my undertaking today
I & # 8217 ; vitamin Ds like to reexamine the job of environmental protection. The
ground why I chose this topic for developing is rather apparent & # 8211 ;
our planet is on the brink of planetary ecological calamity. Today
I & # 8217 ; ll be developing several chief points.

First I & # 8217 ; ll give
you a general thought of the ecological state of affairs on our planet. Second
I & # 8217 ; vitamin Ds like to foreground the most unsafe inclinations that can
have deathly effects for us. Lastly I & # 8217 ; ll seek to demo what
can be done to salvage our planet from catastrophe.

What does the word
ecology mean? This word came from Greek & # 8220 ; oikos & # 8221 ; which
means place. The thought of place includes our whole planet, its
population, nature, animate beings, birds, fish and all other life existences
and even the ambiance around our planet. But look what we have done
with our place? For 1000s of old ages people exploited the nature
unthinkingly believing that its resources had no terminal or bound. With
the industrial revolution our negative influence on nature increased.
What has become with the air we breathe the H2O we drink and the
dirt we grow harvests on? It is all contaminated. Statisticss show that every
twelvemonth the ambiance is polluted by about 1000 dozenss of industrial dust
and other harmful substances. Thousands of kilometres of rain forests
are being cut down for the demand of industries. Ton of fumes wastes
are thrown into the World Ocean.

The effects are
black. There is a barely river left
from which we can take a fresh H2O. A batch of species of animate beings,
birds, fish and workss have either disappeared wholly or on the
brink of extinction. So you see that environmental pollution has
increased to tremendous proportions.

And now allow me travel on
to another point of my research. How can we explicate the planetary
clime warming? Haven & # 8217 ; t you noticed that in this state
winters have become much heater with barely any snow? What are the
grounds for this? The first and the chief ground is the nursery
consequence. The green house consequence is the consequence of heat soaking up by
certain gases in the ambiance ( called nursery gases because they
trap heat ) and reradiation downward of a portion of that heat. Human
activity has been increasing the concentration of nursery gases in
the ambiance ( largely carbon dioxide from burning of coal, oil,
and gas plus few other gases ) . If you look at this diagram you & # 8217 ; ll
see that the degree of C dioxide before the start of industrial
revolution was 280 ppmv. The current degree is 370 ppmv. and the
expected degree for the twelvemonth 2065 is 560 ppmv. The following tabular array shows
the addition of planetary surface temperature. However the heating
hasn & # 8217 ; t been globally unvarying. Some countries ( including southern
United States government ) have cooled. The recent heat has been noted between North
America and Eurasia.

So what are the
possible effects of lifting temperatures? In general scientists
believe that lifting temperature will take to increase vaporization and
therefor to more precipitation. But while some parts will
experience increased rainfall, others will go drier. Another
consequence is the rise of the sea degrees, which will ensue in implosion therapy
low-lying coastal countries. This may besides take to increasing the
salt of the rivers and to diminish of H2O supplies. And eventually
clime alterations may do extinction of many species of birds,
animate beings and workss.

On
the whole the environmental jobs we have merely touched upon are
merely a little portion of copiousness of capable affairs for treatment. We
are to halt pollution. So, we can turn workss and trees, to sublimate
waste, to get down pressing runs in order to continue environment For
illustration, in 1989 in Australia, Sydney. In a twelvemonth the same sort of
action was held all over Australia and it was called & # 8220 ; Clean up
Australia & # 8221 ; the undermentioned old ages 110 states hold the similar
actions within the ecological plan of the UNO.

Presents there are many different force per unit area
and involvements groups in many states, which try to happen solutions
to the jobs of pollution at the national and international degree.
So they are groups of people with a common involvement in seeking to pull
the public attending to environment jobs, to act upon the
authorities determinations.

Greenpeace is a
really celebrated force per unit area group. It started working in 1971. Its
central offices are at Amsterdam, but it operates in 25 states
worldwide. The purpose of Greenpeace is to protect wildlife of toxic
wastes, atomic trials.

& # 8220 ; Friends of the Earth & # 8221 ; ( FoE ) is one of the British
force per unit area groups with an international repute. Its general purpose is
to conserve the planet & # 8217 ; s resources and cut down pollution. Enemy
was established in 1971 and now it operated in 44 states
worldwide. It campaigns among other things, for recycling and
renewable energy, and the devastation of wildlife and home ground.

I & # 8217 ; m
sure there is no flight from this ecological crisis without
forming a individual organic structure covering with the environmental jobs,
developing and transporting out a world-wide plan of environmental
protection and co-operating with international strategies.

Diagrams- & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; Diagrams-äèàãðàììû ê ïðîåêòó
Ecological problems- & # 1089 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; Ecological problems-ñàì ðåôåðàò
Introduction- & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; Introduction-âñòóïëåíèå ê íåìó
presentation- & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; . & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; introduction+ & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; . & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; + & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; presentation-êð . ïåðåñêàç introduction+êð.ïåðåñêàç ðåôåðàòà+âûâîä
Reference list- & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; – ( & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; ) Reference list-ñïèñîê ëèòðû- ( åñëè ïîíàäîáèòñÿ )
& # 1059 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1045 ; ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ÓÑÅ ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
& # 1057 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; “ 5 ” Ñäàíî íà “ 5 ”

Mention
list.

Internet
informations:

www.greenpeace.com

www.world-ecology.com

Multimedia
Editions

Britannica Encyclopedia Britannica Encyclopedia
( Multimedia Edition ) ( Multimedia Edition )
British Multimedia EncyclopediaBritish Multimedia Encyclopedia

Table
of contents.

Introduction & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .PageIntroduction……………………………………….Page
11

Main
Part:

Chapter
1 & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .Page
2

Chapter
2 & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..Page
3 – 4

Chapter
3 & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; Page
5 – 6

Conclusion & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..Page
7

References & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .Page
8