Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services Essay

Table of contents

Introduction

1. Theoretical bases of the economic and legal confirmation of realisation of advanced activity

1.1 Economic bases of advanced activity

1.2 Legal bases of advanced activity

1.3 Working out and the analysis of the advanced undertaking

2. The technique of the appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking

2.1 Existing technique of an appraisal of the investing undertaking

2.2 Offered theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking

2.3 Comparison of criterion and offered theoretical accounts of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking

3. The appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking in public wellness services

3.1 Appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking by a criterion technique

3.2 Appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking by an offered technique

3.3 Comparison of appraisals of efficiency of the advanced undertaking on standard and offered theoretical accounts

4. Management of the forces of the scientific organisations

4.1 Forces of the scientific administrations

4.2 Motivation of the forces in the scientific administrations

4.3 Problem of a pick of the optimal agenda ( manner ) of work in the scientific administrations

5. Bases of safety of ability to populate

5.1 Legal bases of a labour safety

5.2 Planning of actions for a labour safety

The decision

The literature list

Introduction

In modern conditions successful activity of medical establishments is in many respects defined by activity of economic service since the alterations which have occurred in all domains of our society, could non put aside public wellness services. In the conditions of passage to the market without beef uping of an economic orientation of activity of the caput it is hard to number on stable work of constitution. So, is hasty to subscribe contracts, to come in new medical services and to do other of import determinations without matching economic scrutiny. In this connexion for medical establishments there is existent a inquiry of the analysis and economic activities be aftering. Many of methods of economic ( particularly fiscal ) analysis are non new in itself, but those are merely in relation to public wellness services. Application ( version ) of these methods to characteristics of concrete country? A job hard plenty, demanding the large work and making [ 12 ] .

In the present grade work the advanced undertaking of industry of iatrotechnics on the footing of treatment-and-prophylactic constitution will be considered. Offered in the given grade work to consideration the advanced undertaking is developed for a confirmation of industry and realization of the new medical device? The biotest? , intended for nosologies and intervention of many of disease on a method to the developed R.Follem. This way in medical subdivision has started to develop merely in the last some old ages, and its farther enlargement is planned. Development of this way has the large chances in position of that R.Follja ‘s method allows to handle many diseases, including congenital, and medical establishments engaged in nosologies and intervention on R.Follja ‘s method which will be the basic purchasers of the device? The biotest? , can organize the activity in such a mode that engineering usage would do noteworthy net income.

Medical establishments, private clinics and merely separate physicians invariably expand a field of the activity, all new and new services render, and aspire to have from them profit. Device “ Biotest ” allows to organize the whole medical office on research and intervention, helps with many subdivisions of medical specialty. For illustration R.Follja ‘s method is applied in stomatology to nosologies of compatibility of the stuff, seals offered the patient and Crowns, with its being. The intent of degree work is the confirmation of expedience of debut of the advanced undertaking on industry of the new device? The biotest? .

For accomplishment of this intent in work following jobs are solved:

1 ) to Describe the theoretical? Economic and legal? Bases of advanced activity.

2 ) to develop ain theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking.

3 ) to pass the comparative description of criterion and offered theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking.

4 ) For the considered advanced undertaking? Device industries? The biotest? ? To pass an efficiency appraisal by both techniques, criterion and developed in the present grade work.

5 ) to see the of import inquiries refering advanced activity, such as inquiries of direction of the forces in the scientific administrations and ability to populate safety issues at realization of advanced activity. In the appendix to the present grade work the Passport of the advanced undertaking is resulted.

1. Theoretical bases of the economic and legal confirmation of realisation of advanced activity

1.1 Economic bases of advanced activity

Before to talk about the economic bases of advanced activity, we will short depict the basic footings and the constructs connected with advanced activity ( in the field of public wellness services ) [ 26 ] . Harmonizing to a direction of Fraskati ( the papers is accepted in 1993 in the Italian metropolis of Fraskati ) the invention is defined as the terminal consequence of the advanced activity which has received an incarnation in the signifier of a new or advanced merchandise ( service ) , introduced on the market, new or advanced technological procedure, or in the new attack to societal services. In other words the invention ( invention ) means consequence of the originative activity directed on working out, creative activity and distribution of new sorts of merchandises, engineerings, debuts of new organisational signifiers etc. [ 31 ] . In this connexion it is necessary to see the term an invention as enrollment of consequence cardinal, applied or experimental researches in any field of activity, advancing development and addition of efficiency of this activity [ 47 ] . Besides sentiments of writers of assorted editions, in nomenclature inquiries it is necessary to see standard paperss. So in the undertaking of the Federal jurisprudence? About advanced activity and the province advanced policy? Following definitions of constructs considered in the present grade work [ 62 ] are given: ? An invention – the terminal consequence of the originative activity which has received realization in the signifier of new either advanced production, or the new or advanced technological procedure used in an economic bend ; ? Advanced activity? Creation of the new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological procedure, realised in an economic bend with usage of scientific researches, workings out, developmental plants, or other scientific and proficient accomplishments ; ? The province advanced policy? The constituent of a societal and economic policy directed on development and stimulation of advanced activity ; ? Venture advanced financess? The noncommercial administrations established legal and ( or ) physical individuals on the footing of voluntary belongings payments and ( or ) voluntary investing in exchange for a portion in the portion capital, the creative activities focused on funding, development in industry of new sorts of production and ( or ) the engineerings connected with a high hazard ; ? An substructure of advanced activity? The administrations rendering topics of advanced activity of service, necessary for realization of advanced activity. In connexion with the above-stated the cardinal construct for the present grade research? The advanced undertaking? It is necessary to specify as follows. As the advanced undertaking we will understand the debut concern program ( industries and gross revenues ) innovative working out ( the new goods, service or engineering ) . The concern program, in bend, is both a confirmation of economic feasibleness of debut of an invention, and planning of actions for realization of the undertaking [ 46 ] . Following sorts of activity concern advanced activity [ 63 ] : public presentation of the research, developmental and technological plants directed on creative activity of new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological procedure, realised in an economic bend ; Transporting out of selling researches and the administration of trade good markets of advanced merchandises ; creative activity and development of an advanced substructure ; readying and retraining of forces for advanced activity ; protection, transportation and acquisition of the rights to objects of rational belongings both the confidential scientific and technological information ; realization of technological re-equipment and industry readying ; realization of trials, enfranchisements and standardisation of new procedures, merchandises and merchandises ; the initial period of industry of new or advanced production, application of new or advanced engineering before accomplishment of a standard clip of recovery of spending of the advanced undertaking ; funding of advanced activity, including realization of investings into advanced plans and undertakings ; other sorts of plants which necessary for realization of advanced activity and are non beliing the statute law of the Russian Federation. Further from the conceptual device we will go through to the description of the economic bases of advanced activity. Above it was already told about necessity of firm consideration of the inquiries connected with an economic facet of activity of treatment-and-prophylactic constitutions. The first, what it is necessary to observe in this connexion? This addition of the importance of economic service in activity of the medical establishments, connected with addition of the importance of fiscal indexs. Other minute? This indispensable alteration last old ages character of economic work, addition of its complexness and labor input? Complexity and labour input of economic work in public wellness services is connected, foremost of all, with enlargement of beginnings of funding, assorted rules of be aftering [ 40 ] . The Major factors act uponing happening of new waies in economic work of medical establishments, Changes in public wellness services economic mechanism are following [ 53: 1 ] ) . 2 ) the Computerization of constitutions of public wellness services. 3 ) alterations of the position and the organizational-legal signifier of medical establishments, their transmutation into full pull offing topics with the broad rights in inquiries of the administration of the work. One of the major sorts of economic work traditionally is be aftering. In modern conditions its comparative denseness. However in modern conditions alternatively of charges of medical establishments precedence value starts to acquire costs be aftering on the medical assistance rendition, called to supply coordination of resources with volumes of the rendered services, alternatively of measure of capacities ( the countries, fingerstalls, provinces etc. ) [ 20 ] . By consideration of new inclinations in attacks to the analysis of economic activities of medical establishments what varies non merely toolkit of the economic analysis, but besides a methodological footing is basically of import? The economic analysis of work of medical establishment Acts of the Apostless as the analysis of activity of the independent and full managing capable, alternatively of merely consumer of resources as it was earlier [ 39 ] . Rather new domain of activity of economic service is pricing. This job has got the practical importance in connexion with debut of a new economic mechanism and obligatory medical insurance [ 35 ] . In the conditions of market dealingss at an constitution of the sizes of a payment it is necessary to see a supply and demand both on a labour market, and in the market of medical services [ 48 ] .

1.2 Legal bases of advanced activity

Advanced activity is carried out harmonizing to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Civil codification of the Russian Federation. The Undertaking of the Federal jurisprudence on inventions and advanced activity Besides, prepares. To modulate advanced activity harmonizing to this Law and Torahs accepted harmonizing to it and other standard legal certifications of the Russian Federation, Torahs and other standard legal certifications of topics of the Russian Federation, and besides the international contracts of the Russian Federation, refering advanced activity [ 64 ] . If the Federal Law on advanced activity while exists merely in the undertaking in many parts of Russia Regional Torahs on advanced activity [ 63 ] operate. Regional Torahs on inventions and advanced activity and the Undertaking of the Federal jurisprudence are under building about on the same construction, hence for light of legal bases of advanced activity it will be pertinent to province the care and substantial commissariats of the Undertaking of the Federal jurisprudence on inventions and advanced activity, holding resulted the care of this Project [ 62 ] . We will see substantial commissariats of this Undertaking. First of all, in the Undertaking it is supposed to see following constructs: an invention? The terminal consequence of the originative activity which has received realization in the signifier of new either advanced production, or the new or advanced technological procedure used in an economic bend ; advanced activity? Creation of the new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological procedure, realised in an economic bend with usage of scientific researches, workings out, developmental plants, or other scientific and proficient accomplishments ; the province advanced policy? The constituent of a societal and economic policy directed on development and stimulation of advanced activity ; venture advanced financess? The noncommercial administrations established legal and ( or ) physical individuals on the footing of voluntary belongings payments and ( or ) voluntary investing in exchange for a portion in the portion capital, the creative activities focused on funding, development in industry of new sorts of production and ( or ) the engineerings connected with a high hazard ; an substructure of advanced activity? The administrations rendering topics of advanced activity of service, necessary for realization of advanced activity [ 63 ] . In the Project makes a reserve that advanced activity is carried out harmonizing to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Civil codification of the Russian Federation, the present Federal jurisprudence and Torahs accepted harmonizing to it and other standard legal certifications of the Russian Federation, Torahs and other standard legal certifications of topics of the Russian Federation, and besides the international contracts of the Russian Federation, refering advanced activity. If the international contracts of the Russian Federation set up other norms, than provided by the present Federal jurisprudence norms of the international contracts [ 63 ] are applied. In the Undertaking it is noticed that following sorts of activity concern advanced activity: Performance of the research, developmental and technological plants directed on creative activity of new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological procedure, realised in an economic bend ; transporting out of selling researches and the administration of trade good markets of advanced merchandises ; creative activity and development of an advanced substructure ; readying and retraining of forces for advanced activity ; protection, transportation and acquisition of the rights to objects of rational belongings both the confidential scientific and technological information ; realization of technological re-equipment and industry readying ; realization of trials, enfranchisements and standardisation of new procedures, merchandises and merchandises ; the initial period of industry of new or advanced production, application of new or advanced engineering before accomplishment of a standard clip of recovery of spending of the advanced undertaking ; Financing of advanced activity, including realization of investings into advanced plans and undertakings ; other sorts of plants which necessary for realization of advanced activity and are non beliing the statute law of the Russian Federation [ 63 ] . Subjects of advanced activity are legal organic structures, irrespective of the organizational-legal signifier and a form of ownership, physical individuals? Citizens of the Russian Federation, the foreign administrations and citizens, and besides individuals without citizenship. Subjects of advanced activity can transport out maps of clients and ( or ) executors of advanced undertakings and plans, investors, consumers of consequences of advanced activity, and besides the administrations functioning advanced procedure and promoting development and distribution of inventions [ 62 ] . The province harmonizing to the current statute law warrants to topics of advanced activity: The province support of advanced plans and the undertakings directed on realization of the province advanced policy ; the province support of creative activity and development of topics of an substructure of advanced activity ; the province support to readying, retraining and betterment of professional accomplishment of the shootings which are transporting out advanced activity ; rational belongings protection, protection against an unjust competition and monopolism ; entree freedom to the information on precedences of the province advanced policy ; freedom of distribution and assemblage of the information on advanced demands and consequences of scientific and proficient and advanced activity, except for the information incorporating province, office and the trade secret [ 64 ] . Public organisations and associations in which charter advanced activity is provided, can transport out on the competitory beginnings it at the disbursal of agencies of the federal budget, budgets of topics of the Russian Federation and to acquire the province support. Public governments of the Russian Federation, governments of topics of the Russian Federation by readying of undertakings of standard legal certifications and plans in the field of advanced activity can affect public administrations and associations [ 62 ] . The basic signifier of dealingss between topics of advanced activity are the contracts ( contracts ) concluded harmonizing to the current statute law of the Russian Federation [ 63 ] .

The differences originating at realization of advanced activity, are considered in an order established by the statute law of the Russian Federation and the statute law of topics of the Russian Federation [ 62 ] . Public governments in an order established by the statute law of the Russian Federation and the statute law of topics of the Russian Federation, can halt or suspend advanced activity in instances of self-generated and other catastrophes, debuts of province of exigency in district of the Russian Federation, and besides if continuance of advanced activity can take to infringement established by the statute law of the Russian Federation and the statute law of topics of the Russian Federation of ecological, sanitary-and-epidemiologic and other norms and regulations, the rights and involvements legal and physical individuals [ 62 ] .

1.3 Working out and the analysis of the advanced undertaking

By agencies of the advanced undertaking the of import job on finding-out and a confirmation of proficient possibility and economic feasibleness of advanced activity darings. Despite a assortment of undertakings, their analysis normally follows some general strategy which includes the particular subdivisions gauging commercial, proficient, fiscal, economic and & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1102 ; feasibleness of the undertaking. [ 49 ] . Basically the kernel of the analysis of the advanced undertaking consists in the reply to two simple inquiries [ 52:

1 ] ) whether we Can sell a merchandise which is turning out of realization of the undertaking?

2 ) whether we from it can have sufficient volume of the net income warranting the investing undertaking? The analysis of efficiency of the advanced undertaking conditionally breaks on [ 52 ] : the market analysis, the analysis of the competitory environment, working out of the selling program of a merchandise, care of dependability of the information used for the old subdivisions. As advanced undertakings are carried out at already bing markets, in the undertaking their characteristic should be resulted. The selling analysis should include the analysis of consumers and rivals besides. The analysis of consumers should specify consumer enquiries, possible sections of the market and character of procedure of purchase. For this intent the developer of the undertaking should transport out elaborate research of the market. Besides, it is necessary to transport out the analysis of the basic rivals within the bounds of market construction and limitations, on it act uponing [ 29 ] . In pulling 1.1 the general sequence of the analysis of the advanced undertaking is presented. It is necessary to detect, what the declaration used on the strategy? The undertaking deviates? Has conditional character. The undertaking should be truly rejected in the initial sort. At the same clip the undertaking can be altered because of, for illustration, its proficient impracticableness and the analysis of the modified undertaking should get down from the really beginning.

Let ‘s describe high visible radiations of the analysis of efficiency of the advanced undertaking [ 37 ] . The proficient analysis [ 37 ] Problem of the proficient analysis of the advanced undertaking is: ? Definition of the engineerings most suited from the point of position of the intents of the undertaking? The analysis of local conditions, including handiness and cost of natural stuffs, energy, a labor? Stocktaking of possible possibilities of planning and undertaking realization. The proficient analysis is normally made by group of ain experts of the endeavor with possible attractive force of narrow experts. Standard process of the proficient analysis begins with the analysis of ain bing engineerings [ 51 ] . The regulation of a pick of engineering provides the complex analysis of some alternate engineerings and a pick of the best discrepancy on the footing of any aggregative standard [ 56 ] . The fiscal analysis of [ 37 ] investing undertakings Given subdivision is the most volume and labour-consuming. The general strategy of fiscal subdivision of the advanced undertaking follows simple sequence [ 37 ] . 1 ) the Analysis of a fiscal status of the endeavor in readying of the advanced undertaking. 2 ) the analysis of break-even of industry of chief positions of production. 3 ) the prognosis of net incomes and pecuniary watercourses in the class of realization of the advanced undertaking. 4 ) an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking. We will halt short on cardinal inquiries of fiscal subdivision of the advanced undertaking. The fiscal analysis of the old work of the endeavor and its current place normally is reduced to computation and reading of the basic fiscal factors reflecting liquidness, recognition position, favorableness of the endeavor and efficiency of its direction. Normally it does non do trouble. It is of import to show besides in fiscal subdivision the basic fiscal coverage of the endeavor for a figure of old old ages and to compare the basic indexs on old ages [ 51 ] . The break-even analysis includes regular work under the analysis of construction of the cost monetary value of fabrication and sale of chief positions of production and division of all costs into variables ( which alteration with alteration of a volume of end product and gross revenues ) and invariables ( which remain invariable at alteration of a volume of end product ) . The Main aim of the analysis of break-even? To specify a break-even point, i.e. a gross revenues volume of the goods which corresponds to zero value of net income. Importance of the analysis of break-even consists in comparing of a existent or planned addition in the class of realization of the investing undertaking with a point of break-even and the subsequent appraisal of dependability of profitable activity of the endeavor [ 27 ] . The Most responsible portion of fiscal subdivision of the advanced undertaking is really its investing portion which includes [ 37 ] : ? Definition of investing demands of the endeavor for the undertaking? Establishment ( and the subsequent hunt ) beginnings of funding of investing demands? Appraisal of cost of the capital involved for realization of the investing undertaking? The prognosis of net incomes and pecuniary watercourses at the disbursal of undertaking realization? An appraisal of indexs of efficiency of the undertaking. The most hard is the inquiry of an appraisal of a recoupment of the undertaking during its term of realization [ 5 ] . The volume of pecuniary watercourses which turn out as a consequence of undertaking realization should cover size of the entire investing taking into history a rule? Costss of money in clip? . Each new watercourse of money received in a twelvemonth has the smaller importance, than equal to it on size the pecuniary watercourse received twelvemonth before. As the characteristic mensurating the clip importance of pecuniary watercourses, the norm of favorableness from investing received Acts of the Apostless during realization of the investing undertaking of pecuniary watercourses [ 5 ] . The economic analysis [ 37 ] be integrated process of an appraisal of economic efficiency can it is presented in the signifier of the undermentioned sequence [ 37: 1 ] ) to Present consequences of the fiscal analysis. 2 ) to do new categorization of disbursals and incomes from the point of position of the economic analysis. 3 ) to interpret fiscal values in economic ( they do non co-occur because of disagreement of the monetary values and disbursals for external and place market ) . 4 ) to Estimate cost of other possibilities for usage of resources and response of the same merchandise. 5 ) to except all computations on internal payments ( as they do non alter the general wealths of the state ) . 6 ) to Compare one-year economic watercourses of agencies with initial volume of the investing ( it will be a concluding analysis ) . The institutsionalnyj analysis of [ 37 ] Institutsionalnyj the analysis estimates possibility of successful public presentation of the investing undertaking taking into history organisational, legal, political and administrative conditions. This subdivision of the investing undertaking is non quantitative and non fiscal. Its chief undertaking? To gauge set of the internal and external factors attach toing the investing undertaking [ 37 ] . The appraisal of internal factors is normally made under the undermentioned strategy. 1 ) the analysis of possibilities of industrial direction. Well-known that bad direction in a status to make full up any, even over the good undertaking. Analyzing industrial direction of the endeavor, it is necessary to be focused on following inquiries [ 37 ] : ? Experience and making of directors of the endeavor? Their motive within the bounds of the undertaking ( for illustration, in the signifier of a portion from net income ) ?

Compatibility of directors with the intents of the undertaking and the nucleuss ethical and project cultural values. The analysis of a work force. A work force with which it is planned to affect for undertaking realization should match to degree of engineerings used in the undertaking [ 42 ] . The analysis of organisational construction. The organisational construction accepted at the endeavor should non brake undertaking development. It is necessary to analyze, as there is at the endeavor a decision-making procedure and as distribution of duty for their public presentation is carried out. It is non excluded that it is necessary to apportion direction of realization of the developed investing undertaking in separate administrative construction, holding passed from hierarchal to matrix construction of direction as a whole on the endeavor [ 51 ] . The basic precedences in regard of the analysis of external factors are chiefly caused by a policy of the province in whom following places [ 37 ] are allocated for the elaborate analysis: ? Conditionss of import and export of natural stuffs and the goods? Possibility for foreign investors to set agencies and to export the goods? Laws on work? Substantial commissariats of fiscal and bank ordinance. This points in inquiry are most of import for those undertakings which assume attractive force of the western strategic investor [ 37 ] . The analysis of hazard [ 37 ] . The kernel of the analysis of hazard consists in the followers. Without dependance from quality of premises, the hereafter ever bears in itself an uncertainness component. The most portion of the informations necessary, for illustration, for the fiscal analysis ( elements of disbursals, the monetary values, production gross revenues volume, etc. ) Are unsure. In the hereafter prognosis alterations as to the worst ( net income lessening ) , and in the best are possible. The hazard analysis offers the history of all alterations, both towards impairment, and towards betterment [ 48 ] . In the class of project realization following elements are capable to alter: cost of natural stuffs and accoutrements, cost of capital disbursals, service cost, cost of gross revenues, the monetary values and so on. As a consequence of mark parametre, for illustration net income, will be insouciant. The hazard uses construct of likeliness distribution and chance. For illustration, the hazard is equal to chance to acquire negative net income, that is the loss. The wider scope of alteration of factors of the undertaking, the & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; is capable to put on the line the undertaking [ 57 ] . As a regulation, definitively advanced undertaking is made out in the signifier of the concern program. In this concern program all inquiries listed supra, as a regulation, are reflected. The concern program of the advanced undertaking, foremost of all, should run into demands of that topic of advanced activity on which determination the farther fate of the undertaking [ 36 ] depends. So, in chapter 1 of degree work theoretical bases of advanced activity in public wellness services have been considered, and, the basic nomenclature is entered, the economic grounds of inventions and legal care of advanced activity are described. From chapter 1 it is possible to pull a decision, what a chief cause doing advanced activity in economic system in general and in public wellness services in peculiar? The new market dealingss obliging each concrete endeavor to seek extra beginnings of funding. These economic bases in bend generate the legislative base supplying a legal field of advanced activity.

2. The technique of the appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking

2.1 Existing technique of an appraisal of the investing undertaking

Existing ( standard, classical ) the technique of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking includes [ 35:

1 ] ) computation of factor of the pure resulted cost ( NPV ) ;

2 ) computation of an index of profitableness of investings ( PI ) ;

3 ) computation of internal rate of return or norm of profitableness of the investing ( IRR ) ;

4 ) decision-making on undertaking realization. We will depict each measure of this technique.

At the bosom of procedure of credence of administrative determinations of investing character the appraisal and comparing of volume of prospective investings and the future pecuniary grosss lie. As compared indexs concern the assorted minutes of clip, a key job here is the job of their comparison. To concern it it is possible otherwise depending on bing nonsubjective and subjective conditions: rate of rising prices, the size of investings and generated grosss, skyline of prediction, a skill degree of analysts etc. The international pattern of an appraisal of efficiency of investings basically is based on the construct of clip cost of money and is based on following rules.

1 ) the appraisal of efficiency of usage of the invested capital is made by comparing of a pecuniary watercourse ( hard currency flow ) which is formed in the class of realization of the investing undertaking and the initial investing. The undertaking admits effectual if return of the initial amount of investings and demanded favorableness for the investors who have given the capital is provided.

2 ) the invested capital no less than a pecuniary watercourse is resulted by this clip or by certain colony twelvemonth ( which as a regulation precedes the beginning of realization of the undertaking ) .

3 ) Procedure of discounting of capital investings and pecuniary watercourse is made under assorted rates of price reduction which are defined depending on characteristics of investing undertakings. At definition of the rate of price reduction the construction of investings and cost of separate constituents of the capital are considered. The kernel of all methods of an appraisal is based on the undermentioned simple strategy: Initial investings at realization of any undertaking generate pecuniary watercourse CF1, CF2… , CFn. Investments admit effectual if this watercourse is sufficient for? Return of the initial amount of capital investings and? Maintenance of demanded return on the invested capital. 1 ) computation of factor of the pure resulted cost ( NPV ) [ 29 ] Calculation of this factor is based on comparing of size of the initial investing ( IC ) with a entire amount of the discounted pure pecuniary grosss generated by it during predicted term. As influx of money resources is distributed in clip, it is discounted by agencies of factor R, established by the investor independently, continuing from one-year per centum of return which he wants or can hold on the capital invested by it. Let ‘s admit, the prognosis becomes that the investing ( IC ) will bring forth during n old ages, grosss at a rate of CF1, CF2, CF… . The general saved up size of the discounted incomes ( PV ) ( Present Value ) and the pure resulted cost ( NPV ) ( Net Present Value ) Pays off.

Where N? Measure of the periods of clip on which the investing, R is made? Norm of favorableness ( favorableness ) from an investing. It is obvious that if: NPV & gt ; 0 the undertaking should be accepted ; NPV & lt ; 0 the undertaking should be rejected ; NPV = 0 the undertaking non profitable and non the unprofitable Undertaking with NPV = 0 has nevertheless extra statement to ain advantage: though wellbeing of proprietors of the company in instance of undertaking realization will non alter, the volume of end product will increase, i.e. the company will increase. At prediction of incomes on old ages it is necessary to see all sorts of grosss, both industrial character, and non-productive which can be with the given investing undertaking.

It is necessary to detect that index NPV reflects a look-ahead appraisal of alteration of economic potency of the endeavor in instance of credence of the considered undertaking. This index is linear in clip, i.e. NPV assorted undertakings it is possible to summarize. This really of import belongings apportioning this standard from others and leting to utilize it as the nucleus at the analysis of an optimality of the investing undertaking. At comparing of two or several investing undertakings, evidently, it is necessary to take that undertaking which has higher value NPV [ 39 ] . 2 ) Calculation of an index of profitableness of investings ( PI ) [ 39 ] Pays off a profitableness index ( Profitability Index ) ( PI ) under the expression:

PI = & # 8721 ; k [ Pk / ( 1 + R ) K ] / IC,

Where IC? Sizes of the initial investing ; Pk? The prospective cumulative income ; r? Norm of favorableness ( favorableness ) from an investing ; k? Quantity of the periods of clip ( old ages ) . It is obvious that if: PI & gt ; 1 the undertaking should be accepted ; PI & lt ; 1 the undertaking should be rejected ; PI = 1, the undertaking neither profitable, nor unprofitable. Unlike the pure resulted cost the profitableness index is a comparative index, it characterises degree of incomes on a unit of cost, i.e. efficiency of investings? The more value of this index, the above return of each rouble invested in the given undertaking. Thankss to it standard PI is really convenient at a pick of one undertaking from a figure option, holding approximately indistinguishable values NPV, in peculiar, if two undertakings have indistinguishable values NPV, but different volumes of demanded investings, that, it is obvious that that from undertakings which provides the large efficiency of investings, or at acquisition of a portfolio of investings with the maximal entire value NPV [ 26 ] is more favorable. 3 ) Calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitableness of the investing ( IRR ) [ 31 ] ( Internal Rate of Return ) ( IRR ) understand value of factor of discounting As internal rate of return or norm of profitableness of the investing R at which NPV the undertaking it is equal to nothing: IRR = R, at which NPV = degree Fahrenheit ( R ) = 0.

Where CFj – an entryway pecuniary watercourse during j th period, INV? Value of the investing. The sense of this factor at the analysis of efficiency of planned investings consists in the followers: IRR shows expected favorableness of the undertaking, and, therefore, every bit much as possible admissible comparative degree of disbursals which can be & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; with the given undertaking. For illustration, if the undertaking is financed wholly at the disbursal of the loan of commercial bank value IRR shows the top boundary line of admissible degree of the bank involvement rate which surplus does the undertaking unprofitable. Therefore, IRR is as though? A barrier index? : if cost of the capital above value IRR? Capacities? It is non plenty undertaking to supply necessary return and return of money and hence the undertaking should be rejected [ 32 ] . 4 ) ( ARR ) [ 12 ] This factor has Calculation of effectiveness ratio of the investing two characteristic characteristics: he does non presume discounting of indexs of the income ; The income is characterised by an index of net net income PN ( balance net income subtraction tax write-offs in the budget ) [ 19 ] . The algorithm of computation is entirely simple, as predetermines broad usage of this index in pattern: the investing effectivity ratio ( named besides in enrollment rate of return ) ( Accounting Rate of Return ) ( ARR ) pays off division of mid-annual net income PN into mean size of the investing ( the factor undertakes in per centum ) . The mean size of the investing is division of the initial amount of capital investings into two if it is supposed that after term of realization of the analyzed undertaking all capital disbursals will be written off ; if presence of residuary or neutralizing cost ( RV ) its appraisal should be considered in computations is supposed.

ARR = PN / [ 1/2 ( IC + RV ) ] ,

The given index is compared to factor of profitableness of the advanced capital counted by division of the general net net income of the endeavor for a entire amount of agencies, advanced in its activity ( a consequence of mean balance cyberspace ) more frequently. The method based on usage of effectivity ratio of the investing, besides has a figure of the indispensable deficiencies caused, fundamentally, that it does non see clip constituents of pecuniary watercourses. In peculiar it does non make differentiation between undertakings with the indistinguishable amount of mid-annual net income, but the changing amount of net income on old ages, and besides between the undertakings holding indistinguishable mid-annual net income, but generated during assorted measure of old ages. 5 ) decision-making by standard of the least cost After a statement of the general strategy of standard theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of investing undertakings, we will province some decisions. There are investing undertakings in which it is hard or it is impossible to cipher the pecuniary income. This kind of undertakings arise at the endeavor when it is traveling to modify the technological or conveyance equipment which takes portion in many various work rhythms and it is impossible to gauge a pecuniary watercourse. In this instance as standard for decision-making on expedience of investings operation cost Acts of the Apostless.

2.2 Offered theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking

Feature of topics of research considered in the present grade work consists what the general theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking in public wellness services boulder clay now is non made? This job at thesis for a physician ‘s degree degree on economic system. In models of usual grade research it is possible to offer merely the theoretical account focused on the concrete advanced undertaking. In this connexion? To finish the image? Before really statement of offered theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the undertaking it is necessary to depict in brief the undertaking, i.e. to do the short sketch of the undertaking. The advanced undertaking considered in the present grade research consists in the administration of industry and sale of the diagnostic device? The biotest? & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; for a determination & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; points, transporting out & # 1101 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; the express train of nosologies of a status of a human organic structure by consequences of measurings of parametres of biologically active points, testings of readyings and therapy harmonizing to R.Follja ‘s technique. The Scope – the diagnostic device of the physician of the healer, the homeopathist, the anaesthesiologist, etc. Freshness of the undertaking ( invention, an invention ) consists what release of the merchandise, parallel non holding to in Russia, abroad is supposed? The device really inexpensive and dependable.

The device device. The instance is made of shock-resistant polystyrene. On the obverse panel are located: 1 – the microampermeter 2 – the switch of runing manners of the device 3 – the switch? Diagnostics/therapy? 4 – the measure switch of frequences of therapy 5 – the index of inclusion and the class of the power supply 6 – light indexs of a determination of biologically active points ( definition of grade of falling of an pointer ) On a sidelong surface of the device is located a regulator of amplitude of influence of electroimpulses. The device block diagramme? The biotest? It is presented on fig. 3 and includes: – the device of hunt of biologically active points – the mensurating amplifier – the microampermeter – the puting generator with a frequence splitter – mark force per unit area

Remote terminal units: inactive unit of ammunition electrodes ; an active electrode ; a pes electrode ; a home base for proving of readyings and medical specialties Additional devices. Under the demand of the client the device is completed with a courser ( & # 1047 ; . & # 1059 ; . ) . The courser is intended for gymnastic exercises of collectors ( if they are present alternatively of electric batteries at a nutrient compartment ) . As bringing of a diagnostic office of the physician is possible. The device enters into it for device connexion? The biotest? To the COMPUTER. The device of the coordination of the device has been for this intent specially developed? The biotest? And the COMPUTER and as the package leting wholly is written to automatize work of the physician. Assortment. 1 sort of the device will be issued? The biotest? With & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; the index, wholly matching to the above-stated description of Advantage of the given device in comparing with parallels available in the market. Device “ Biotest ” was developed purely on the footing of R.Follja ‘s method. The device has included all most necessary qualities such as simpleness, & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; both easiness in circulation and device accommodation, little weight of a merchandise, dependability and lastingness of a merchandise, little power ingestion, a nutrient from battery power supplies “ finger-type ” which are widely accessible, aesthetic visual aspect of the device and its distant terminal units. Device life rhythm? The biotest? Basically it will be defined by life rhythm of the most applied method of R.Follja. Development inclinations will dwell in device betterment, add-on in it of new maps, betterment of available features, alteration of visual aspect of the device. As it is planned to develop new updating of the device? The Biotest Th? With & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; the index + the extra digital index of degree, grade of falling of an pointer and some other parametres. The offered theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking will include: 1 ) an appraisal of competitory advantages of the goods ( service ) , offered by the considered undertaking ; 2 ) an appraisal of a market capacity of sale on which the considered undertaking, including as the basic index the gross revenues volume prognosis is focused ; 3 ) computation of the capacity necessary for realization of the undertaking, and its comparing to a predicted gross revenues volume ; 4 ) computation of the undertaking of volume of investings necessary for realization ; 5 ) computation? Break-even points? , i.e. critical for a recoupment of the undertaking of volume of end product ; 6 ) summarizing computation of the basic indexs of the undertaking, such as net income ( entire and pure ) ; profitableness of production ; profitableness of financess ; the full cost monetary value ; labour input ; the predicted monetary value for production ; a critical gross revenues volume and release ; efficiency of capital investings ; a clip of recovery of spending ; a stock of fiscal lastingness. A nucleus of offered theoretical account is the analysis of break-even and a undertaking recoupment. The break-even analysis includes regular work under the analysis of construction of the cost monetary value of fabrication and sale of chief positions of production and division of all costs into variables ( which alteration with alteration of a volume of end product and gross revenues ) and invariables ( which remain invariable at alteration of a volume of end product ) . The Main aim of the analysis of break-even – to specify a break-even point, i.e. a gross revenues volume of the goods which corresponds to zero value of net income. Importance of the analysis of break-even consists in comparing of a existent or planned addition in the class of realization of the investing undertaking with a point of break-even and the subsequent appraisal of dependability of profitable activity of the endeavor. The most responsible portion of fiscal subdivision of the undertaking is really its investing portion which includes? Definition of investing demands of the endeavor for the undertaking? Establishment ( and the subsequent hunt ) beginnings of funding of investing demands? Appraisal of cost of the capital involved for realization of the investing undertaking? The prognosis of net incomes and pecuniary watercourses at the disbursal of undertaking realization? An appraisal of indexs of efficiency of the undertaking. In the class of an appraisal of a recoupment of the undertaking the inquiry of the history of rising prices is critical. Truly, the pecuniary watercourses developed in clip, it is necessary to number in connexion with alteration of buying capacity of money. At the same clip there is a place harmonizing to which the concluding decision about efficiency of the investing undertaking can be made, disregarding inflationary consequence. In one of caputs it will be shown that inflationary alteration of a monetary value degree does non act upon an appraisal of the pure value of pecuniary watercourses led to the present minute on which base the basic index of efficiency of the investing undertaking is defined.

2.3 Comparison of criterion and offered theoretical accounts of an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking

Two theoretical accounts applied to an appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking were supra described. A job of this point? To give their comparative description. These theoretical accounts in two basic waies will be compared: by consequences and under the care. Refering comparing by consequences. Surely, both these theoretical accounts bring the intent the reply to an attending to the inquiry, whether it is necessary to set up money in the considered advanced undertaking or non ; but these two theoretical accounts otherwise answer this inquiry. In what here similarities and differentiations? It besides is a job of the comparative description of theoretical accounts by consequences. Comparison of theoretical accounts under the care assumes transfer qualitative and the quantitative parametres used in both theoretical accounts, and besides a conformance constitution between these two sets of parametres. Besides it will be necessary to pull the general decision under the analysis of two theoretical accounts: what are? Assets? And? Subtractions? Applications of everyone them them what of them it is necessary to prefer at the analysis of the considered undertaking, etc. Let ‘s remind that the standard theoretical account assumes: 1 ) computation of factor of the pure resulted cost ( NPV ) ; 2 ) computation of an index of profitableness of investings ( PI ) ; 3 ) computation of internal rate of return or norm of profitableness of the investing ( IRR ) ; 4 ) decision-making of realization of the undertaking. The offered theoretical account assumes 1 ) an appraisal of competitory advantages of the goods ( service ) , offered by the considered undertaking ; 2 ) an appraisal of a market capacity of sale on which the considered undertaking, including as the basic index the gross revenues volume prognosis is focused ; 3 ) computation of the capacity necessary for realization of the undertaking, and its comparing to a predicted gross revenues volume ; 4 ) computation of the undertaking of volume of investings necessary for realization ; 5 ) computation? Break-even points? , i.e. critical for a recoupment of the undertaking of volume of end product ; 6 ) summarizing computation of the basic indexs of the undertaking, such as net income ( entire and pure ) ; Profitability of production ; profitableness of financess ; the full cost monetary value ; labour input ; the predicted monetary value for production ; a critical gross revenues volume and release ; efficiency of capital investings ; a clip of recovery of spending ; a stock of fiscal lastingness ; 7 ) decision-making on realization ( or to a divergence ) the undertaking. As it is possible to see, in sense of the intent of application both these theoretical accounts have the intent to reply a inquiry, to accept to realisation or to reject the considered advanced undertaking. On a manner of the reply to this chief point of theoretical account differ. Differentiation consists what the standard theoretical account fundamentally uses comparative factors, and offered theoretical account? The absolute. To demo this difference it is possible on a simple illustration: the standard theoretical account will state that it is necessary to set money, as each enclosed ruble will convey 20 kopeks of the income ( i.e. Let ‘s enclose 1 rouble, we will have 1 ruble of 20 kopeks ) , whereas the offered theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency will state what to set up money in the advanced undertaking costs, as the enclosed 1000 rubles will return as 1200 rubles. It is obvious, what this differentiation non indispensable since at usage of that and their other theoretical account it is possible to add with matching indexs? Standard theoretical account absolute, offered? The relation. The standard theoretical account uses comparative indexs owing to tradition ; the offered theoretical account uses absolute indexs from convenience grounds? At application of offered theoretical account it is possible to pull a decision of such class that for realization of the advanced undertaking it is necessary to affect 14011 c.u. that through 7 months to have 19873 c.u. Under the care of indexs two considered theoretical accounts fundamentally coincide. We will turn out it. The standard theoretical account does non give possibility to put to death an appraisal of competitory advantages of the goods ( service ) offered by the considered undertaking. However the standard theoretical account should incorporate this index as intermediate consequence? If the undertaking is non directed on industry of a competitory merchandise the undertaking will be unprofitable and inefficient. A similar state of affairs with a market capacity index? This index is non necessary for application of standard theoretical account, nevertheless, it does non intend that the offered theoretical account wins at criterion, holding this index. Capacity computation is designated as an obligatory index at application of offered theoretical account. This index is non present as a portion of standard theoretical account, nevertheless for computations of factors of standard theoretical account anyhow it is necessary to cognize the capacity requested by the undertaking. For this ground for application of standard theoretical account more low we will utilize this factor, but counted within the bounds of application of offered theoretical account. Calculation of necessary volume of investings is necessary for application of both theoretical accounts: in offered theoretical account it is taken out as a separate index, in the criterion? Is present at quality of parametre ( intermediate consequence ) at computation of all indexs of standard theoretical account. Means, at application of standard theoretical account we will turn to partially to consequences of application of offered theoretical account. The break-even point wages off at application of offered theoretical account, but anything similar is non present in standard theoretical account. It is caused by what a break-even point? An index absolute whereas the standard theoretical account uses comparative indexs. As to such features of the undertaking, such as net income ( entire and pure ) , profitableness of production, profitableness of the financess, the full cost monetary value, the labor input, the predicted monetary value for production, a critical gross revenues volume and release, a clip of recovery of spending, a stock of fiscal lastingness? All of them are present at offered theoretical account, and at standard theoretical account there are merely comparative indexs, viz. : efficiency of capital investings and parallel of an index of profitableness of production. If the intents of application of theoretical accounts coincide, some indexs and intermediate consequences are crossed, in what a difference between them and what for it is necessary to utilize two theoretical accounts? First of wholly, the numerical features given by theoretical accounts, non should differ strongly from each other as we consider their application to the same undertaking: If the standard theoretical account gives any numerical index its truth will be hard for bettering owing to that the standard theoretical account has already proved. We will pull decisions by consequences of considerations of techniques of an appraisal of efficiency of advanced undertakings. How it was possible to detect, the standard theoretical account is less labour-consuming in the application? In it, doubtless, there is an advantage of standard theoretical account before offered theoretical account. However, the basic difference between standard and offered theoretical accounts what the offered theoretical account gives more information on the concrete undertaking? And in it the large advantage of offered theoretical account before the criterion. For illustration, the standard theoretical account of an appraisal of efficiency of the undertaking can non reply on a inquiry, in what volume it is necessary to do production that the undertaking was profitable? The standard theoretical account uses this index, but does non number it whereas the offered theoretical account at first counts it, and so utilizations. So, both those and other theoretical accounts can state that, for illustration, as a consequence of three old ages of realization the undertaking will be profitable whereas the offered technique can state that the undertaking will pay off in 7 months. The offered theoretical account besides has one indispensable deficiency? All basic indexs pay off on the footing of the gross revenues volume prognosis. But it is the prognosis, evidently, can be merely approximative. Hence, all basic indexs of offered theoretical account will be approximative. In the undermentioned chapter the comparative analysis of application of criterion and offered theoretical account on an illustration of the concrete innovative undertaking will be given.

3. The appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking in public wellness services

3.1 Appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking by a criterion technique

1 ) Calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost ( NPV ) For application of a standard technique of a instance of the advanced undertaking considered in the present grade work, all basic numerical informations will set about from point 3.2 of the present work. So the prognosis, allow us presume, becomes that the investing ( IC ) will bring forth within 3 old ages, grosss at a rate of CF1, CF2, CF… . The general saved up size of the discounted incomes ( PV ) ( Present Value ) and the pure resulted cost ( NPV ) ( Net Present Value ) Pays off.

Here n – measure of the periods of clip on which the investing is made, r – norm of favorableness ( favorableness ) from an investing. It is known that if: NPV & gt ; 0 the undertaking should be accepted ; NPV & lt ; 0 the undertaking should be rejected ; NPV = 0, the undertaking non profitable and non the unprofitable. For our undertaking

Here and more low in work we will believe that 1 c.u. = 1 $ . We will notice besides, what at the minute of 01.04.04 Central Bank rate of the Russian Federation of the American dollar made 28 rbl. 13 kopek Here in the first composed figure 14011 of c.u. with a subtraction corresponds to the full cost monetary value of the undertaking, r=0,166, or, what the same, r=16,6 % ? Level of profitableness ( favorableness ) of the undertaking. For our undertaking the colony size is more than zero, the undertaking profitable agencies. 2 ) computation of an index of profitableness of investings ( PI ) Pays off a profitableness index ( Profitability Index ) ( PI ) under the expression:

PI = & # 8721 ; k [ Pk / ( 1 + R ) K ] / IC,

Let ‘s remind that if: PI & gt ; 1 the undertaking should be accepted ; PI & lt ; 1 the undertaking should be rejected ; PI = 1, the undertaking neither profitable, nor unprofitable. For our undertaking it is had:

Here 8721 c.u. ? Net net income size. In brackets three composed as we investigate the undertaking within three old ages? 2005, 2006 and 2007 whereas we begin project realization in 2004. For the considered undertaking this size is more than unit, therefore, the undertaking profitable. 3 ) computation of internal rate of return or norm of profitableness of the investing ( IRR ) ( Internal Rate of Return ) ( IRR ) understand value of factor of discounting As internal rate of return or norm of profitableness of the investing R at which NPV the undertaking it is equal to nothing: IRR = R, at which NPV = degree Fahrenheit ( R ) = 0.

.

Where CFj – an entryway pecuniary watercourse during j th period, INV – value of the investing. Strictly talking, this factor dismisses non so much, how many the equation, holding solved which, we will happen the norm of favorableness INN is minimal necessary for realization of the undertaking. For our undertaking it is had a undermentioned equation: . We will detect that in the left member of equation three composed owing to that consideration is conducted for three old ages. A test and mistake method we find that for public presentation of following equality it is necessary, that approximate equality was observed. It means that the norm of favorableness of 8,1 % whereas from following point it will be seeable that norm of favorableness of our undertaking of 16,6 % is necessary for a undertaking recoupment. It means that it is necessary to recognize the undertaking profitable. We will pull decisions by consequences of computations of the basic factors of theoretical account under the determination on credence or a undertaking divergence is accepted after consideration of values resulted above factors. As we saw, all these factors have yielded that consequence that the undertaking profitable and it should be accepted to realization.

3.2 Appraisal of efficiency of the advanced undertaking by an offered technique

Industrial competitory advantages. For device fabrication? The biotest? Components will be used cheap, non scarce, & # 1096 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; , but at the same clip qualitative, fundamentally import industry. In this connexion the device will hold high consumer belongingss at the low cost monetary value. A market appraisal. The market of the medical equipment in Russia is non sated plenty by the equipment of the given way [ 23 ] whereas the developed device has no strong rivals both on Russian, and in the foreign market. It promotes fast promotion of the device on the market of Russia and the close abroad. Changes in the given market can happen under the influence of following external factors: – happening in the currency market – penchant of consumers As it is necessary to pay attending of alteration to the internal factors act uponing a status of the given market: – a competition ; – alteration of internal construction of participants of the market. All it leads to constant alterations in the given market that and as effect changeless betterment and enlargement of mixture of production, and as to enlargement of a assortment of the services given together with the offered goods invariably promotes qualitative betterment of construction of participants.