In the last two decennaries biofuel has gained increased attending within the development discourse. The rapid addition in attending to biofuel could be attributed to a figure of grounds. Foremost among the grounds is the belief that Biofuels could potentially lend to the solution to climate alteration through a decrease in Green House Gases ( GHGs ) . Advocates of this line of statement believe that Biofuel plantations could absorb GHGs ( possible C sinks ) and are besides beginnings of renewable clean energy because they do non breathe C like their opposite number dodo fuels and as such will assist in the overall decrease of emanations therefore cut downing clime alteration. Other given grounds deduced from available literature on biofuel is the thought that investing in renewable energy beginnings key among which is biofuels will procure the hereafter energy demands of developed states ( energy security ) because of the hiking in oil monetary values and authorizations in developed states peculiarly in Europe ( Arndt et al. , 2011 ) . This has therefore spurred important investor involvement in biofuel production peculiarly in developing states with low income and copiousness of ‘unused lands ‘ ( ibid ) .
Biofuel continues to have increasing attending besides from those concerned with advancing agricultural and environmental sustainability through the decrease of C emanations, an of import constituent of clime alteration extenuation ( Msangi et al, 2007:4 ) . Msangi et al write that biofuels have been linked to multiple Millennium Development ends. It is besides considered to be a potentially important subscriber towards the economic development of rural countries and as a agency of cut downing poorness through the creative activity of employment and incomes ( FAO 2005b ; Kammen, 2006 ) .
Many states in the Latin America, Africa and Asia have seen an addition in agrofuel undertakings because it is claimed that these states have 10s of 1000000s of hectares of ‘unused ‘ lands ( White and Dasgupta, 2010:583 ) every bit good as the handiness of inexpensive labor. For case in a intelligence publication on Ghana Business News online on May 11, 2009, Emmanuel K. Dogbevi writes that one of the factors that put Ghana on the list of states with high potency for biofuel production is the claim that big production can be done at a low cost[ 1 ]. This rapid addition in investings for biofuel production in developing states and the associated Panacea has been said to be the attractive force for authoritiess of these states including Ghana who have bought into the thought that biofuels will supply a solution to their agricultural jobs pieces supplying them energy security and assisting cut down emanations ( White and Dasgupta, 2020 ) .
Biofuels by definition are considered as “ organic primary and/or secondary fuels derived from biomass which can be used for the coevals of thermic energy by burning or by other engineering ” ( Peskett et. Al, 2007:2 ) . There are two types of biofuels, bioethanol derived from harvests like corn, sugar cane, manioc among others and biodiesel derived from oil thenar, Jatropha, soybean, sunflower among others. Agrofuel is the term used to depict fuel from nutrient and oil harvests[ 2 ]generated through big agro-industrial production processe. In this paper the term biofuel and agrofuel is used interchangeable because the type of biofuel discussed in this paper is largely referred to as agrofuels.
In the last five old ages Ghana became a major finish for foreign investings in biofuel undertakings in West Africa due to the comparative peace and additions it had made in democracy. This is seen largely by foreign investors as supplying a safe environment and security for their investings. Ghana like most of its opposite numbers in the biofuel web is said to hold big piece of lands of lands considered as ‘marginal ‘ and/or ‘unused ‘ which is good for the production of biofuel harvests like Jatropha. Marginal sometimes referred to besides as fresh lands are described as lands that are “ thinly inhabited, unproductive, under-productive, under-utilized, idle lands that can be transformed into zones of production for nutrient and biofuels to work out the universe ‘s job on nutrient and energy without sabotaging local nutrient demands ” ( Borras et a.l, 2011 ) . This definition has been challenged and problematized by many bookmans ( Borras et al. 2011 ; White and Dsagupta 2010aˆ¦aˆ¦ etc ) . The claim of handiness of big piece of lands of this type of lands in Ghana became the major attractive force for largely foreign investors who acquired big hectares of lands for the cultivation of feedstock largely jatropha, sunflower and manioc for biodiesel and bioethanol production severally. On the side of the authorities of Ghana, the ground for opening up the state for foreign investing in biofuels is to first of all cut down the state ‘s overdependence on imported oil while diminishing oil import measures. It is besides anticipated biofuel development will supply wealth creative activity through employment and gross coevals, increase export net incomes and assist to cut down clime alteration ( Final Draft Bioenergy Policy and Strategy for Ghana, November 2011: 5 ) . There is limited information on the entire size of lands committed to biofuel production in Ghana but unsmooth estimations puts the figure someplace above 600,000 hectares of land with Scan Fuel AS a Norse company geting the largest piece of land numbering about 400,000 hectares in the Asante Akim North Municipal Assembly though current information indicates that the company has halted the cultivation of Jatropha and converted to maize cultivation for nutrient. Other foreign companies involved in big scale cultivation of Jatropha and other biofuel harvests include Solar Harvest AS through its African affiliat Biofuel Africa Ltd ( the topic of my instance survey ) with over 23,000 hectares in Northern part of Ghana, Agroils of Italy in the Brong Ahafo part, Gold Star Farms in Volta, Central, Brong Ahafo and Eastern part, Galten in the Volta part. There are besides Ghanese led/owned companies with foreign spouses involved in Jatropha and other biofuel harvests cultivation in Ghana. Examples of such companies are Kimminic Estates Ltd once Biodiesel One Company and Jatropha Africa ltd both based in the Brong Ahafo part of Ghana.
Assorted concerns have been raised globally and within Ghana by research workers and non-governmental administrations over the deduction of large-scale acquisitions for cultivation of agrofuels. Some of the concerns raised include the impact of such big acquisitions on nutrient security, on the environment, poorness and supports among others. Several grounds have contributed to the concerns raised about agrofuels. Falling universe nutrient militias taking to additions in nutrient monetary values and the challenges confronting the agribusiness sector peculiarly in developing states have been the chief grounds for these concerns. These are legitimate concerns because nutrient production is likely to confront serious competition with agrofuels non merely for land but besides for market. Food harvests like Maize, soya beans and maniocs are staple nutrient for many developing states. These harvests are besides used to bring forth oil and ethyl alcohol which is converted to biofuels and this will probably increase the monetary value of these harvests therefore worsening hungriness in these states. Another of import concern that has been alluded to by many research workers is the gendered deduction of such large-scale biofuel undertakings due to groundss derived from other large-scale hard currency harvest production. Agrofuel undertakings like other big scale agro-industrial undertakings have gendered deductions for supports and poorness decrease. Work force and adult females are affected otherwise by such big graduated table undertakings. Womans are more frequently affected by such large-scale undertakings because they frequently lack entree to dependable land, secure land term of office and customary land rights. Meanwhile land is a really of import resource for adult females ‘s supports because it provides them with indispensable trade goods like nutrient, fresh fish, fuel wood among others. As such any alterations in land usage affect adult females ‘s supports and frequently lead to alterations in family kineticss ( Behrman et al. , 2011:1 ; FAO-SOFA, 2010-11 ) . These alterations and impacts may non be the same for adult females and work forces of different age groups, position, ethnicity and different families. However, the discourse on gender and agrofuels do non convey out clearly these differentiated impacts. It besides treats the family as a unitary organic structure with everyone within it collaborating for the well-being of all pieces disregarding the differences among families and within families.
This paper hence examines the deduction of large-scale biofuel production for adult females ‘s support and gender equality looking at the gender differentiated socio-economic impacts pulling grounds from Kpachaa in the Yendi Municipality of Northern Ghana.
The intent of the research was to analyze the impact of large-scale biofuel production on adult females through an apprehension of the gender differentiated impacts. The result of the research is aimed at accomplishing two aims:
It is meant to lend to development discourse on agrofuels and the deduction for supports
To besides lend to ongoing argument in Ghana on large-scale biofuel production by foregrounding the gender differences
The chief research inquiry answered in this paper is ‘How has large-scale biofuel production impacted on adult females and work forces and what is the deduction for gender equality in Kpachaa in Northern Ghana.
The sub-questions that guided the research are:
What are the economic impacts of biofuel undertakings on adult females and work forces
What are the societal impacts of biofuel undertakings on adult females and work forces
What are the alterations if any in gender dealingss and adult females ‘s authorization within the family and the community since the debut of the biofuel undertaking
To what extent are the alterations affected or is affected by the debut of the biofuel undertaking
Choice of the Research Area
The Yendi Municipality in the Northern part of Ghana was selected for garnering empirical grounds to back up this research. The Yendi Municipality is made up of 14 major small towns one of which is Jimli. The research country, Kpachaa is a colonist community under Jimli and it under media limelight sometime in 2008 when Biofuel Africa leased big piece of lands of land for biofuel plantation. The visible radiation was on Kpachaa because the company earlier traveling to this community in 2007 had started a similar undertaking in Alipe in the Central Gonja District of Nothern Ghana which suffered local resistance and came to a deadlock ( Boamah, 2011 ) . The biofuel undertaking in the Kpachaa country was chosen for this research because the company Biofuel Africa Limited was the first biofuel company to obtain an environmental impact assessment license from the Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) in Ghana to get down production[ 3 ]. The company acquired over 12,000 hectares of land in the Northern part for Jatropha cultivation. Though it is non the company with the largest land acquired in Ghana for biofuel cultivation ( Scanfuel has the largest land acquisition of about 400,000 Hectors in the Agogo country of the Asante Akyem Municipality in Ghana for the cultivation of Jatropha ) , their instance is peculiar because they were at the Centre of the land catching argument in Ghana. The ground being that, the undertaking country and part is among the vulnerable parts in Ghana in relation to poorness and nutrient security which is largely due to perennial drouth, bushfires and long standing chieftainship and cultural struggles.[ 4 ]The land term of office system in this country and many parts of Northern Ghana is based on customary jurisprudence and patterns with allodial rubrics vested in the communities but held in trust and administered by the heads.[ 5 ]Womans here frequently receive land from their hubbies and boies for agriculture and harmonizing to FAO 2010-11 study adult females in Northern Ghana are frequently allocated lands considered as fringy. This therefore has deduction for the Biofuel Africa undertaking given that they acquired over 10,000 hectares of fringy lands in this country for the cultivation of biofuel. Another ground that made Biofuel Africa peculiar for this survey is the fact that one of their declared aims as observed on their web site is the publicity of gender equity and authorization of adult females, by engaging female workers whenever possible.[ 6 ]All the above grounds among others provides a good topographic point to garner empirical grounds for this research
In order to travel beyond the normal hypothesis to set up empirical grounds the research employed a combination of methodological analysis. The research used the Gender Analysis Matrix tool to roll up informations through one on one in-depth interviews and group interviews.
Gender Analysis Matrix ( GAM ) developed by Rani Parker ( 1993 ) aims to assist find the different impacts development intercessions have on adult females and work forces. It is a community based technique utile for placing and analyzing gender differences. GAM offers two tools for analysis. First, it offers analysis at four degrees that is adult females, work forces, family and community and allows other variables to be added like age, category, ethnicity among others. Second, it allows analysis of four sorts of impacts that is labour, clip, resources ( both entree and control ) and socio-cultural factors ( March et al, 1999 ) . For labor, GAM looks at alterations in undertakings, degree of accomplishment required and labour capacity. For clip it looks at the sum of clip it takes to complete a undertaking. For resources GAM looks at alterations in entree to income, land, recognition etc as a effect of the undertaking and the extent of control over the alterations in resources. Last, for the socio-cultural factors, GAM looks at alterations in the societal facets of the participants ‘ lives including alterations in gender functions or position as a consequence of the undertaking. GAM is utile for this research because it considers gender dealingss every bit good as the separate experiences of each class. It helps to pull out the connection of gender dealingss and moves gender off from homogeneousness. In add-on it is speedy for informations assemblage ( ibid ) and given the short clip available it seems appropriate
Case Study Methodology
A instance survey methodological analysis will be employed to understand how the debut of big biofuel production and the end point land usage alteration has affected different genders and how this is influenced by age, position and ethnicity. A instance survey is more appropriate because it is an in-depth survey into a context specific modern-day real-life phenomenon ( Yin, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Yin ( 2009 ) , researches that focal point on the HOW and the Why inquiries most likely will take to instance surveies. A instance survey besides allows a research worker to utilize a mixture of methodological analysiss uniting both quantitative and qualitative. In a research of this sort there is the demand to roll up informations on the different genders, age groups, category ( position ) and cultural groups and this will necessitate utilizing quantitative tools like studies. The studies will besides assist me roll up informations on family composing, natural resources allotment and usage, types of harvests cultivated. Apart from the quantitative tools Qualitative tools like cardinal informant single interviews, focal point group treatments, direct observation, life histories among others to research the worlds of the different groups in Kpachaa.
Scope and Restrictions
Administration of the Paper
Gender Analysis Matrix as an Approach
An Overview of the Policy and Project Context
The Socio-Economic Impacts of Large-scale Biofuel Production on Women ‘s Livelihoods. A Case survey of the Biofuel Africa Project in Kpachaa in the Yendi Municipality of Northern Ghana
This chapter discusses the findings of the research. This research started by inquiring the inquiry ‘How has large-scale biofuel production impacted on adult females and work forces and what is the deduction for adult females ‘s supports in Kpachaa in Northern Ghana.