I chose Manila, Philippines, for the extremely engorged metropolis. Transportation in Manila comes in the signifier of Taxi, Bus, Light Rail Transit, Metro Rail Transit, Jeepneys, and bikes with sidecars. Despite all of these signifiers of transit there is a large job with engorged traffic on the transit webs.
Most engorged metropoliss, including Manila, have dense concentrations of population along with proliferation of vehicular traffic and deficient roads to manage them. The grounds why there is a congestion job in Manila and the solution to the job is an on-going argument and a hard job to work out. The traffic is described as awful. Redevelopment patterns carried out during Reconstruction of the metropolis after World War 2 did n’t follow any urban planning ordinances and that is one of the grounds there is a job with congestion. Another lending factor is high population and deficiency of development control. One web site suggested there is corruptness in the Government and seeking a solution and implementing a declaration to the congestion job is a really slow procedure because the planning procedure used in the yesteryear was non sufficient to back up the population and natural conditions elements the metropolis is sing today.
For a low congestion metropolis I chose Toronto, Canada. Some countries of Toronto do experience high congestion on transit webs and there are countries of high population denseness. These factors are partly offset by one of the best public transit systems in North America. The metropolis of Toronto has good urban planning patterns, recognizes the planning issues present in the metropolis, and has considerable resources to implement and prolong the metropoliss substructure and services. Development control is enforced by the metropolis ; population denseness is much less than in Manila, and Toronto fits into a bigger image non corrupt, ‘functioning ‘ authorities system that is superior to that found in Manila.
( degree Celsius )
Population plays a function in congestion although the capacity of the transit web besides plays an of import function. There are many things to see when analysing a transit path such as the capacity of the route, the degree of technology and metropolis planning that went into the design and even the capacity of environing transit webs taking into and out of the capable country. I chose four Canadian metropoliss for this inquiry and collected informations on costs of congestion and compared that to the population of the metropolis. Below is a chart sum uping the information for the four metropoliss:
Hamilton Ontario is rated as the least engorged metropolis and it ‘s interesting to observe that it besides has the lowest population. Quebec rates second for the most engorged metropoliss from my choice, followed by Edmonton, followed by Ottawa – Gatineau. The congestion evaluations have a close correlativity with population. It makes sense for population to play a function in congestion because as the population additions so does the figure of vehicles on the route. Population buzzword on its ain be a deciding factor of congestion and some of the other considerations should include population denseness, location of the concern territory, clip of twenty-four hours, clip of twelvemonth, type of vehicles on the route, and likely most significantly the capacity of the route. Below is a graph that helps exemplify route capacity:
Every route is designed to transport up to ‘X ‘ figure of vehicles an hr and after this volume travel times start to increase and congestion is experienced. In the graph above the capacity is at C. Points on the graphs such as V2 and V1 are above the recommended capacity.
One common congestion job faced by metropolis contrivers and local authoritiess stems from early developed countries of town that were non originally designed to manage the volumes of traffic they are presently sing. In terrible instances when something has to be done about the state of affairs it ‘s non uncommon for the metropolis to make up one’s mind to widen a route. This nevertheless involves more than metropolis planning and technology because frequently a broad street means belongings proprietors along the capable street will lose some of their front pace and so it becomes a political issue every bit good.
Congestion is n’t merely determined by the size of the metropolis although there does look to be a correlativity between metropolis size and congestion. Having effectual public transit systems can assist relieve traffic volume from roads, every bit good as holding proper signage, controlled intersections, and even bear downing a toll to utilize a route can assist travelers make smart transit determinations.
( vitamin D )
The metropolis of Manila is developed on the Manila Bay and the waterfront is occupied by havens. Development of the metropoliss transit webs would hold gathered around the coastline where goods can be picked up and dropped off by ships. A close scrutiny of the map below reveals there are docks run alonging the shoreline:
The docks are covered with transporting crates and in the early old ages of this metropolis transportation would hold been the primary manner of transporting goods. Transportation is still a low cost and effectual manner to transport things from topographic point to topographic point. Industries and houses that send their merchandises around the universe would take to turn up near to the havens so they could salvage on transit costs and maximise their net incomes.
Other transit appears to hold been developed to serve the edifices and communities throughout the metropolis. It can be seen in the map that several subdivisions of the metropolis are developed around H2O characteristics and the route web and land packages are grouped together into assorted subdivisions. When a big secret plan of land was developed a transit web would hold been put in topographic point to serve the development. It appears that multiple straggling developments are linked together by chief roadways throughout the metropolis. Many of the street spiels follow some predominate geographic characteristic like a river, the coastline or a lake. I was unable to get a contour map to find if lift played a important function in the street forms.
The 2nd metropolis for this inquiry is Toronto. Toronto metropolis is built on Lake Ontario and the waterfront of the metropolis has a sea port where goods can be delivered or picked up. Below is a map demoing greater Toronto country:
The transportation port is sheltered by the Toronto Island and holding this protected country may hold been seen as an advantage when the metropolis was developed. Early twenty-four hours transit of goods depended to a great extent on transportation and it was likely one of the primary grounds the metropolis is located on shore of Lake Ontario. There is a railway that passes by the waterfront where goods can be transferred from rail to transport or visa versa. The CN tower which is located near to the waterfront was originally owned by CN Railroads and played an of import function in CN railway communications.
The remainder of the metropolis does n’t look to hold many H2O characteristics act uponing development tendencies and the transit web is divided into blocks. There is a Don Valley Highway that follows the Don Valley River. The Don Valley main road does non fit the remainder of the metropolis transit webs and the river is likely the ground.
Lake Ontario is connected to a larger scale ship transit system connected to other great lakes and the Atlantic Ocean through a series of rivers, locks, and canals. Having Toronto located on the shores of Lake Ontario with rail and transportation entree is an advantage for industries traveling their merchandises.
( vitamin E )
The first transit plan I chose was designed for the Greater Toronto Area and Hamilton, Ontario. The plan was called the Smart Commute Initiative plan and the nonsubjective if the $ 6.7 million undertaking was to implement workplace-based transit demand direction by set uping new transit direction associations and a regional coordinating organic structure called the Smart Commute Association.
The enterprise was funded by the authorities of Canada, take parting municipalities, and partially by the private sector. The SCI was comprised of six chief activities:
Constitution of the smart commute association
Development and execution of transit direction associations
Development and bringing of a ride-matching service
Development and bringing of a guaranteed drive place plan
Monitoring, rating and coverage
Selling, instruction and outreach
Initiated in 2004 and completed in 2008, the end of the Smart Commute Imitative ( SCI ) was to alleviate congestion, better air quality and wellness, and cut down emanations by advancing alternate commuter options such as carpooling, cycling, walking, and birds.
All of the enterprises established during the undertaking continue to run and most continue to turn. Ten transit direction associations ( TMA ) were established in the greater Toronto and Hamilton country. An illustration of the plans success was the constitution of an on-line carpool zone service and that resulted in the decrease of about 10 000 autos per twenty-four hours which would hold a direct positive consequence on traffic congestion.
The consequences will be broken down in the to the six Smart Commute Initiative classs listed supra.
Smart Commute Association:
The smart commute association was the cardinal organizing organic structure of the plan. Aside from the cardinal coordinating organic structure there was a local transit direction association for each local country and their toolkit was developed by the SCA. The toolkit was used by the TMA to promote employers to set up carpooling, telecommuting, cycling, walking, theodolite, birds, vanpooling and alternate work hours.
Transportation Management Association:
As mentioned earlier 10 transit direction associations were established during the plan and more are planned. The TMA and SCA worked together to educated the populace and employers how to develop carpooling plans and promote other agencies of transit. The TMA was besides responsible for mensurating the success of the plan.
The TMA was successful in implementing plans to cut down individual tenancy auto commutation and had established a plan at more than 200 worksites with over 145 000 employees. The consequences from these attempts indicate a decrease of 1.2 million commuter trips per twelvemonth.
In 2005 main road 403 and 404 in Toronto had new high-occupancy vehicle lanes opened and those new carpool zones attracted tonss of attending. Part of the SCI was to supply advertisement on the wireless and on Television which added to the turning involvement. By the terminal of the undertaking more than 6000 users had registered with the service and enrollment was increasing by 125 commuters per hebdomad.
The carpooling plan had a web site where members of the populace or employers registered with SCI or TMA. There were maps such as route-based matching that made this peculiar site one of the most advanced carpooling services in the universe.
This service was put in topographic point for people who use the carpool plan but find themselves necessitating a drive place in the instance of an exigency during regular work hours. The service was provided chiefly through the usage of cab ‘s or rental bureaus.
Monitoring, rating and coverage:
This is how the service Smart Commute Imitative plan was evaluated.
Selling, instruction and outreach:
This is how the plan was advertised to the populace to educate people about how to acquire involved or how to go a smart commuter. Methods used include radio advertizements and promotional events.
The plan was successful in cut downing traffic by about 10 000 vehicle per twenty-four hours. The consequences from the Smart Commute proved the value of the plan to many politicians as an effectual agencies of cut downing nursery gas emanations and traffic congestion. The SCI grew to go a necessary component of municipal and regional service bringing in the greater Toronto Area and Hamilton.
The information for the 2nd illustration is for the metropolis of Manila in the Philippines. The information I was able to garner for this illustration was contained in articles. The information for the first illustration came from a Government web site giving an overview of the plan, the aims, the result, and decisions. The article incorporating the information for Manila was non organized every bit good and was non intended to be a review of the efforts made to take down congestion so I have much less elaborate information to travel on for this illustration.
Urban transit is one of the biggest public and political concerns in the metropolis of Manila. Transport bureaus and policy shapers are invariably under force per unit area to turn to the already overstretched transit system.
Some of the steps that are in topographic point presently to turn to traffic congestion include curtailing entree to place roads between 7:00am and 7:00pm. Another attack to take downing the figure of vehicles on the route utilizes license home base Numberss. Not every auto can go everyday because there would be far excessively many vehicles on the transit webs. Average traffic velocity in Manila is amongst the slowest in the universe. The last figure in a licence home base figure is used to command which vehicles can be operated on public roads on specified yearss. For illustration if the last figure is an uneven figure than those vehicles could be permitted to drive Monday, Wednesday, Friday, while vehicles with a licence home base Numberss stoping in an even figure could go on the staying yearss of the hebdomad. Affluent households will frequently hold more than one vehicle ; each vehicle will hold a different licence home base figure leting one of their vehicles public route entree during all yearss of the hebdomad.
Other limitations include censoring trucks during peak periods from 6:00am to 9:00pm. Trucks take up a big sum of infinite on roads and have a wider turning radius than most vehicles so there is besides alternate truck paths designated for big conveyance vehicles.
Aside from the efforts that have already been made to take down traffic congestion in Manila there is besides a survey being done by the National Centre for Transportation Studies that looks at garnering informations refering to demographics, socio-economic conditions, authorities policies, and local industrial demands to bring forth a structural equation that will stand for weekend travel behavior in Metro Manila. The article references similar surveies done in the US that have been successful in reflecting travel wonts for US metropoliss. From what I gather this survey has non been implemented in Manila and it will be interesting to see if anything happens with this attack to take down traffic congestion in the following few old ages.
How these illustration comparison to the class content:
The Toronto illustration suggests utilizing theodolite, carpooling organisations, or other signifiers of transit and there are barriers to actuating people to utilize those signifiers of transit over a private car. When people travel they consider things such as the pecuniary cost of travel, the chance cost of clip spent traveling, and convince and comfort. When clip to see theodolite agendas, clip to walk to a theodolite location, and the chance cost of sharing a vehicle are taken into consideration its hard for transit policy shapers and metropolis functionary to vie with the personal car. In fact the dependance on the car is increasing. The Toronto illustration established a transit direction association and a Smart Commute Initiative plan that addressed these factors through wireless advertizements and by set uping carpooling organisations with employers. The attempts made by the transit direction association educated the general public about alternate picks to the car and made it easier for them to take alternate signifiers of transit. The Smart enterprise plan cost the authorities of Canada and the take parting municipality ‘s considerable sum of money nevertheless their attempts did turn to the factors people face when make up one’s minding to utilize an car or a theodolite or carpool service. The Smart Commute Initiative plan put in topographic point the model necessary for people to take carpooling and theodolite services.
Both the Toronto and Manila examples effort to turn to the critical degree of traffic on their roads. Every route or transit path has a capacity or recommended volume of traffic. When the volume of traffic on a route exceeds the critical degree travel times start to increase. For illustration say a route can manage 1500 autos per hr with an mean velocity of 45km per hours, but, one time the volume of traffic exceeds 1500 autos per hr the mean velocity travelled beads as the figure of autos additions. In Manila where mean travel velocities are amongst the slowest in the universe there was a plan put in topographic point curtailing which autos can go on which yearss depending on their licence home base figure. This has lowered the volume of traffic on the roads in Manila nevertheless the congestion jobs are so terrible that it ‘s non plenty to relieve over crowded roads.
I noticed that during my hunts on the cyberspace I was unable to happen an illustration in either metropolis where congestion tolls were charged to deter the usage of personal or individual occupant cars. A congestion toll would assist countervail the private and fringy costs of utilizing public theodolite and would promote people to salvage money by utilizing other signifiers of transit or carpooling.
( a ) & A ; ( B )
When the metropolis was developed there were average denseness residential, commercial and industrial zones used. The commercial zone is located in the center of the metropolis surrounded by residential and there is an industrial zone located outside the residential zone in the south west corner of the metropolis. As I played the game I kept an oculus on the development taking topographic point throughout the metropolis and the residential vicinities appeared to develop at the same rate throughout the full metropolis. Playing the game is clip devouring and there is a batch of item with many concerns necessitating to be addressed.
There did n’t look to be any marks of urban conurbation. The residential zones all populated at the same rate regardless of the distance from the commercial zone located at the Centre of the metropolis. The full metropolis is dumbly developed with no marks of conurbation.
Once the metropolis has aged and the population grew I used the ‘Data Map ‘ to derive a better apprehension of the traffic state of affairs for the transit webs.
The figure to the right shows the transit web for the full metropolis. There is a fable on the diagram that conveys the degree of congestion and as you can see all of the roads are in the high congestions class.
One of the many concerns in the game came from the transit adviser who suggested more money was needed to fun local transit services. As I played the game and adjusted revenue enhancement rates I noticed there was an option for bear downing a toll, nevertheless, I could n’t calculate out how to trip that map to see what sort of an consequence it would hold on traffic congestion.
Looking at another diagram it is possible to see where the highest volume of traffic can be found. Both traffic congestion and traffic volume can be viewed for forenoon commutes or flushing commutes and in this instance there was no difference between forenoon hours and flushing hours.
Commute times throughout the metropolis will depend on traffic congestion and congestion depends on the capacity of the topic route and the volume of traffic. In this instance commute times will be based on a congested route system harmonizing to the informations map. If the route web was improved by bear downing a toll or by promoting people to utilize theodolite or carpooling services than congestion would diminish and transpose times would drop.
In decision the metropolis does n’t demo any marks of urban conurbation, the full metropolis is compact and dense, and there is high traffic congestion throughout the metropolis.
( degree Celsius )
One option for take downing congestion would be to increase the capacity of the route by adding excess lanes to manage traffic. This is by and large viewed as an impracticable option because it merely encourages more traffic to come in the streets. Harmonizing to the text at that place have been illustrations where the capacity of a route was increased merely to detect that more vehicles occupied the route and one time once more make fulling its capacity and making congestion. With the clime alteration enterprises and ends to take down nursery gasses this is n’t a executable option in most fortunes.
Another option is to bear down a toll during times of the twenty-four hours when the volume of traffic exceeds the capacity of the route. This will promote more efficient usage of the bing roads and supply inducement for people to carpool or to utilize theodolite.
A 3rd option would be similar to bear downing a toll. Charging a monetary value for the usage of a route, span or tunnel is another manner to lower congestion. For illustration the two big Bridgess in Halifax Nova Scotia connect Dartmouth to Halifax. The metropolis charges each vehicle a monetary value to traverse the span. This state of affairs is common and provides a agency for raising gross every bit good of take downing congestion ; people will avoid the span or portion vehicles to avoid paying the full monetary value on their ain. Pricing in Practice could besides include bear downing a monetary value to entree downtown countries of a metropolis where traffic volume can be high during weekends or specified times during the hebdomad. Harmonizing to the text there are no illustrations of big scale congestion pricing in North America.
There are besides supply factors that can better the efficiency of bing roads. Examples could include supplying better response times for accidents by doing certain paramedic services are available and sufficient to manage the demand of the country, bettering the quality of the roads by keeping the paving, the shoulder of the route, the lines, the signage, the drainage, roads regulations enforcement, every bit good as snow ploughing, salting and sanding services. Transit services could be improved, high tenancy lanes could be added, or new theodolite services could be added. There are besides demand side policies such as gas revenue enhancements, increased licensing fees, reeling work hours to promote teleworking, and adding theodolite Michigans to high denseness countries.
( vitamin D )
One of the biggest barriers I ran into when proving the assorted ways to relieve traffic congestion was implementing transit substructure on land that was already developed. Every clip I tried to construct a high capacity elevated roads or add wider streets I was given mistake messages that the land was already occupied. I decided to develop another metropolis, similar to the 1 used in inquiries 1a, B, and degree Celsiuss, except this clip I developed the transit web foremost and so added districting developments around the luxuriant transit system. The signifiers of transit include individual lane roads, bipartisan roads, elevated main roads, an elevated cloverleaf linking the elevated roads where they intersect in the center of town, flyover inclines to entree the elevated main road, a metro system running diagonally across the metropolis from corner to corner, subway Stationss, four toll booths on the two lane roads, and coach paths with 8 coachs stop locations. Those are all types of transit that were listed in the old inquiry and are ways to maintain congestion on roads to a lower limit.
The zoning for this inquiry was setup the same as the metropolis used for the first three inquiries in portion 2 except this clip the transit paths were developed foremost. The country of the zones is the same in both illustrations and the layout can be seen to the right. It should be noted that it is hard to turn a metropolis to a population of 20000 because there is a much broader focal point in the game than merely transit. All facets of a healthy comfortable metropolis must be taken into history to pull and retain a population of 20000. Something every bit small as seting the revenue enhancement rate can hold an affect on population.
Once the transit web was established and the zoning was completed a power works was placed in the industrial zone to supply power to the metropolis. Once the metropolis aged a few old ages and things started taking form there were vehicles going on the transit webs. While playing the game and waiting for the metropolis to age I did notice the traffic adviser reding me to better some of the streets where there was traffic congestion and this provided me with an chance to ticket tune the route system. The sentiment canvass to the right indicates there is good satisfaction with the traffic system and Sims are by and large happy with the route and theodolite services available to them.
A expression at the traffic congestion informations position index reveals low traffic congestion throughout the metropolis with merely a few one-lane streets sing some medium degree congestion. The traffic system is manner more than is necessary nevertheless this metropolis will be able withstand high densenesss without traffic congestions issues.
The transit system put in topographic point is a casebook illustration of the options discussed in the text and it appears SimCity reflects those congestions relief options.
One thing to indicate out is that adding traffic toll Stationss increased congestion somewhat although it generated gross which could be pumped back into the traffic system to keep other roads.
After aging the community for 15 old ages the congestion study had really little alterations. I went back through the other metropoliss I created for undertaking 1 and none of them were able to prolong low traffic congestion. The route and theodolite system designed for this capable metropolis is capable of managing high densenesss and the game recognises the step put in topographic point to manage traffic. Throughout the full 15 old ages the capable streets shown to the right experienced high congestion. These streets are come ining the industrial zone. Possibly if I had added rail services from the industrial zone to Sim Nation the congestion would hold decreased on those roads. Other than those roads shown in the image there was low congestion throughout the full metropolis after 15 old ages.
These consequences compare to the illustrations in portion one in many ways. A metropolis such as Toronto has had proper metropolis planning applied and the metropolis continues to happen new ways to better theodolite options to maximise traffic flow throughout the metropolis. Toronto compares more likewise to the SimCity theoretical account created with effectual transit webs. Toronto does non hold low congestion on all roads and Toronto does non hold the lowest cost of congestion when compared to other Canadian metropoliss, nevertheless, the transit web in Toronto is far superior to that found in Manila. Toronto besides has a high tenancy main road, highway 404. Manila compares more to the first SimCity theoretical account created for portion 2 because transit webs did n’t follow any urban planning patterns when it was rebuilt after World War 2. As a consequence there is high congestion throughout the metropolis and extenuating the job will non be easy.