Human Resource Management In The Czech Republic Economics Essay

Due to the accession to the European Union in 2003, the Czech Republic showed a rapid economic growing in the last old ages. Driven by this fact and their centralised location within Europe, the state became of major involvements to a figure of well-developed states. Suffered from the communistic government in the yesteryear, they now represent an of import power in Europe. This paper tries to give an overview about the Czech Republic, fundamentally focuses on human resources direction ( HRM ) .

To acquire an overall apprehension, facts and figures related to the economic and societal state of affairs will be presented. Furthermore employment dealingss every bit good as industrial dealingss will be described. As trade brotherhoods, employer administrations and corporate understandings are from higher importance, they are observed more elaborate. Despite of economic growing and a positive overall development, the state is still confronted with debatable issues related to human resource direction.

One of them is the gender inequality, particularly the payment spread between adult females and work forces. Therefore, one major portion of this paper will cover with this subject. Doing so, grounds for the spread and several methods to cut down this will be outlined.

Finally, future tendencies towards an equal payment are shown. For a better apprehension, relevant figures can be found in the appendix.

Facts and Figures

The Czech Republic, located in the east portion of Europe represents a trade spouse with increasing importance. As they provide the most skilled work forces in Eastern Europe, they became interesting, particularly to Germany. Among this, the labor costs in the state are highly low, which attracts international investors and transnational companies to luxate their production. As shown in appendix 1, the mean monthly labor costs counted for 1.201 a‚¬ ( 2007 ) , more than half of the EU27, an abbreviation including all 27 members, with 2.981 a‚¬ . Germany in comparing nowadayss monthly labor costs of 3.786 a‚¬ ( based on 2005 ) . Parallel to moo labor costs, the one-year net incomes are similarly on an highly low degree. As indicated in appendix 1, gross one-year net incomes in 2006 counted for 8.284 a‚¬ , which represents merely 28, 57 % of the European norm.

The economic growing, particularly driven by the EU accession can be seen by detecting the GDP. Comparing the economic public presentation on an one-year base, an addition of 9, 9 % , utilizing the industrial production index, can be stated ( “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profil ” , 2009, p. 2 ) . Furthermore Czechs integrating into the European Union had important impacts on:

foreign trade

portfolio investing, which led to a rapid growing of foreign capital and an addition of labour productiveness and employment

The latter can be shown by the decreasing unemployment rate within the last old ages. Harmonizing to the state analysis study, distributed by DATAMONITOR in October 2009, a uninterrupted diminution was determinable as in 2005 the unemployment rate amounted to 8 % . 2008 in comparing this figure merely accounted for 4, 3 % ( DATAMONITOR, 2010, p.2 ) . The important diminution can be justified by foreign investings expedited by the EU accession. As illustrated in appendix 1, the unemployment rate in 2007 amounted to 5, 3 % . Compared to the EU27 it represents a per centum important below the norm. Harmonizing to Milan A tA›ch ( 2009 ) , chair of the Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions ( A?MKOS ) , this per centum will extremely increase boulder clay 2010. “ aˆ¦Unemployment degrees will transcend 10 % aˆ¦ ” which could take to pay stagnancy. He argues that the active engagement of trade brotherhoods is unevitable to keep occupations. His hypothesis can besides be occupied by prognosiss given by DATAMONITOR ( see appendix 2 ) . Perversely to the unemployment, the overall employment rate of 66, 1 % has to be mentioned, which is somewhat above the EU27.

Following to this figure it is statable, that merely 57, 3 % on female population are employed. In Germany perversely a female employment of 64 % ( 2007 ) exists. In respects to the gender payment spread, Germany and the Czech Republic do non change significantly. Both states show a spread of about 23 % . Thus, adult females earn 23 % less than work forces, based on the mean net incomes of males. This issue will be discussed more elaborate in the last chapter.

Following to the lessening of unemployment, an addition of existent GDP growing in 2007 of 5, 9 % can be observed, which is once more above the European norm of 2, 63 % . This development led to a stable place in the international economic system. Nevertheless, Czech Republic was besides affected by the economic and fiscal crises in 2008, which resulted in lower demand and decreased production.

Following to the economic state of affairs, the accession besides had an impact on legal fortunes. By harmonizing and following the jurisprudence towards European criterions, a new labour codification became effectual in January 2007. The codification by and large included rules in labour dealingss, such as “ being lower limit, aid in stuff demands, societal services system, province societal assistance, illness and pension insurance, societal security premiums and the part of the province to labor market policies ” ( “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ” , 2009, p. 2 ) .

Employment dealingss

Trade brotherhoods every bit good as employer administrations were established in 1989, shortly after the ruin of the communism government.

Both of them have important maps by taking societal duologues in their sectors, negociating high degree corporate understandings and being member of international sector constructions.

Trade Unions

Detecting the European states in general, a uninterrupted downward tendency, linked to a worsening figure of members towards unionization is determinable. Particularly in the eastern portion of Europe and after the terminal of the Cold War including the autumn of the communism government, the figure of trade brotherhoods dramatically declined. While within the socialist authorities about every employee was unionised, today merely 26, 3 % on norm of the 27 EU states are organised in a trade brotherhood. Therefore, three out of four employees in the European Union are no longer a member. FedEE expects a uninterrupted diminution from 26, 3 % to 20 % by terminal of 2010 ( “ Trade brotherhoods across Europe ” , 2010, para 4 ) .

Harmonizing to the Czech jurisprudence, employees are entitled “ to organize and fall in brotherhoods on their ain pick ” ( “ Human resource appraisal in Czech Republic ” , 2000, p.57 ) , which is respected by the authorities. In pattern, trade brotherhood rights are often violated by employers. They exercise force per unit area on employees who are already organized in brotherhoods or program to set up brotherhoods ( “ Trade brotherhood rights in pattern ” , 2007, para 1 ) . As shown in appendix 3, about 22 % of all employees in dependent employment are unionised.

While discoursing trade brotherhoods we have to separate between trade brotherhood alliances and trade brotherhood federations. The biggest and most of import trade brotherhood alliances with about 520.000 ( 2008 ) members is the Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade Unions ( A?MKOS ) , ( “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ” , 2009, p. 4 ) . The A?MKOS is characterized by a democratic orientation and represents an umbrella administration for subdivision brotherhoods without any influence of political histrions ( “ Human Resource Assessment in Czech Republic ” , 2000, p. 57 ) .

The Association of Independent Unions ( ASO ) ranks on 2nd place based on their figure of members. The major five trade brotherhood alliances, based on their rank, are presented in the undermentioned tabular array.

Table 1: trade brotherhood alliances in the Czech Republic ( 2008 )

Ranking trade brotherhood alliances:

Members ( based on 2008 ) :

1. Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade

Unions

520.000

2. The Association of Independent Unions

210.000

3. the Art and Culture Confederation

42.000

4. Trade Union Association of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia

10.000

5. Christian Trade Union Coalition

5.000

Beginning based on: Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ( 2009 ) , p.5, Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

Following to the mentioned trade brotherhood alliances, several trade brotherhoods exists, which are members of the A?MKOS.

The following tabular array represents an overview of the biggest 1 ‘s:

Table 2: trade brotherhood federations in the Czech Republic

Ranking trade brotherhood federations:

Members ( based on 2008 ) :

1. Czech Metalworkers ‘ Federation KOVO

180.000

2. Czech-Moravian Trade Union of Workers in Education

30.000

3. Trade Union on State Bodies and Administrations

20.000

4. Trade Union of Workers in Mines, Geology and the Oil Industry

20.000

5. Trade Union of Workers in Postal, Telecommunication and Newspaper Services

20.000

6. Trade Union of Building Workers of the Czech Republic

20.000

Beginning based on: Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ( 2009 ) , p.5, Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

The overall downward tendency towards unionization can besides be observed in the Czech Republic. With an already mentioned denseness of about 22 % ( see appendix 3 ) in 2009 they are already below the European norm, stated by FedEE ( “ Trade brotherhoods across Europe ” , 2010, para 4 ) . One major ground for this development can be seen in the increasing importance of globalization and transnational companies which led to new and broader challenges to merchandise brotherhoods ( Hala, 2010 ) . Another one, stated by Brewster et Al. ( 2004, p. 338 ) might be the increasing “ agnosticism of the efficaciousness of trade brotherhoods. ” Furthermore one can reason that the employee ‘s acknowledgment to hold the right to form on their ain might take to lose of brotherhood influence either. ( p.338 )

Harmonizing to Hala ( 2010 ) , particularly immature people are non interested in trade brotherhood ‘s engagement, which can be seen in appendix 4. Therefore, new ways of enlisting seem to be necessary, for case “ wide usage of web sites, recruitment cusps, puting up assorted support financess, imperativeness runs and besides the planned administration of targeted recruitment runs among employees of freshly founded endeavors ” ( Hala, 2010 ) . The Czech-Moravian Trade Union of Workers in Education represents a good illustration for including bing members in their enlisting procedures. They developed a questionnaire-based study of its members which was than used as a base for farther betterments.

This overall tendency leads besides to the necessity for trade brotherhood federations to unify with larger and influential spouses, which can be seen by the taking place of A?MKOS. Following to merges, reorganizations have to be taken into consideration and are done oftentimes ( “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ” , 2009, p. 5 ) .

Plants councils

Compared to merchandise brotherhoods, work councils play a subordinated function in stand foring employee ‘s rights. Their chief aim is to simplify the communicating and information flow between employers and employees. Therefore, works council have no influence on corporate bargaining ( Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile, 2009, p. 9 ) .

Employer administrations

Perversely to the trade brotherhood development, employer administrations are on a comparatively stable degree without major alterations expectable ( “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ” , 2009, p. 5 ) . The most of import employer administrations are the undermentioned:

SP A?R

KZPS

SdruA?eni podnikatelA? a A?ivnostnikA? A?R ( SPA? A?R )

SP A?R consists of single every bit good as corporate members stand foring the sector, subdivision or regional units. Small and medium sized companies ( SME ‘s ) are chiefly represented by the Union of Medium- sized concerns, which belong to the SP A?R. Just for completeness and further apprehension, other corporate members, organized in the SP A?R and KZPS are illustrated in appendix 5.

As agreed in the new labor codification in 2007, high degree corporate understandings are adhering to employer administrations, even if they leave the administrations within the in agreement clip period. This ordinance might take to a lessening of association in employer administrations every bit good as an involuntariness of corporate bargaining in future.

Industrial dealingss – collective understandings

Based on Czechs jurisprudence, one has to distinguish between enterprise-level corporate understandings ( ELCA ) and high-ranking corporate understandings ( HLCA ) . While the first one chiefly presents understandings made between trade brotherhood and employer, the latter concludes understandings made by employer administration and employees take parting in high degree trade brotherhoods. Harmonizing to A?MKOS informations ( “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ” , 2009, p. 7 ) , 18 high degree understandings were concluded jointly in 2008. Corporate understandings, such as corporate bargaining are regulated by jurisprudence and binding for both parties. In add-on, the established new labor codification in 2007 provides new chances for bargaining, particularly in private and public sectors.

“ In contrast with the old system, where a corporate understanding could simply better on the rights expressly provided by jurisprudence, the new codification merely stipulates the minimal degree of workers ‘ rights and the maximal degree of their duties, which an understanding should esteem. All other facets of the employment relationship are left to the discretion of workers, employers and their administrations. ” ( “ Trade brotherhood rights in jurisprudence ” , 2007, para 4 ) .

Therefore, a higher flexibleness is ensured. The bargaining procedures are coordinated by A?MKOS based on one-year marks, including rewards, preparation and societal benefits. Targets presented by the European Trade Union Confederation have to be taken into consideration either.

As shown in appendix 3, merely 26, 5 % of employees fall ining the A?MKOS are covered by corporate understandings. This might be due to the diminishing figure of trade brotherhoods which fundamentally have the major power to act upon the bargaining procedure ( Brewster et al, 2004, p. 338 ) . Harmonizing to EUROSTAT ( 2009 ) , Germany perversely covers at least 61 % ( 2007 ) of corporate bargaining. The inefficiency of corporate understandings and their realization in pattern can besides be proved by detecting understandings on payment additions and working hours. While an addition of payment about 3, 9 % was decided jointly, merely 1, 1 % was realized. A similar scenario can be seen in working clip, while 38 hours per hebdomad were agreed and 41, 2 hours are really realized ( appendix 3 ) . Following to bargaining, working clip and payment, the undermentioned issues are chiefly agreed on corporate degree:

Employment conditions

Social policies, including:

Vocational preparation

Health and safety

Employee diversion

Particularly in the last old ages, issues like emphasis, gender equality and sexual torments have gained on importance. Unfortunately these are non often covered by corporate understandings.

As the gender payment spread seems to be a extremely discussed issue, the following chapter will concentrate on the accumulation, current state of affairs and future tendencies towards gender inequality.

Gender payment spread in the Czech Republic

As this issue affects several European states every bit good as the Czech Republic, the following chapter will concentrate on gender inequality and the gender payment spread in peculiarly in the Czech Republic.

Despite the established Anti-Discrimination Law in 2009, an unequal payment between adult females and work forces is still determinable. As already mentioned and shown in appendix 1, the gender payment spread counts for 23, 6 % , or in other words, adult females receive merely 76, 4 % of work forces ‘s norm rewards ( Koldinsika , 2007 ) . Appendix 6 illustrates the Average Net incomes by Age Group for 2002. Generally it is statable that differences along all age classs exist. While the spread from less than 20 old ages to 29 old ages seems to be non that high, the differences in payment in the group of 30-39 old ages and 60+ are tremendous. Mugwump of age, adult females ‘s wage is chiefly changeless, numbering for about 16.000 CZK. Work force in contrast have slight alterations in their overall payment.

Harmonizing to Veverkova ( 2010 ) who presented two surveies published by the Statistical Office within the last old ages, there are several grounds which led to the payment spread. While the first survey ( conducted from 1996-2005 ) preponderantly focus on educational differences, the 2nd and more recent one ( published in 2007 ) cater to several accounts. In 1998, a showed a gender spread of about 30 % ( adjusted ) was detected. The 2nd survey perversely identified a gender payment spread of 20, 18 % ( adjusted ) , ( Veverkova , 2010 ) .

Reasons for gender wage spread

Harmonizing to Veverkova ( 2010 ) , educational differences were one major and of import variable. This besides can be seen in appendix 7, where Average Net incomes by Education Attainment are highlighted. It seems to be obvious, that there is a immense spread in entire instruction which eventually leads to a payment spread of about 5.000 CZK. Especially work forces with upper university instruction, such as Masterss and PhD receive significantly higher net incomes. Furthermore, the spread could be explained by the bulk of adult females working in low-paid occupations. It is instead unknown, if farther payment differences are based on wage favoritism or production features.

As stated by Veverkova ( 2010 ) , grounds are particularly seen in instruction, age, business, part, type of labor contract, figure of old ages in employment and bing kids in the family.

Payment spread due to age group

A important addition of payment spread can be observed in the age between 30-39 old ages due to maternity break. Harmonizing to Koldinska ( 2007 ) , adult females prioritize the child care instead than employment. As they prefer the tolerance of their employer towards working clip and societal issues, the pay seems to be non on major involvement and merely represents a addendum next to the work forces ‘s income. While the age degree below 25 old ages seems to be noncritical ( due to the alterations in wages systems in the last old ages and the absence of pregnancy impacts ) the spread within the class of 65 twelvemonth old adult females and work forces additions. This can be explained by the early retirement of adult females. In instance they continue to work in pension ‘s age, they are merely allowed to gain a limited amount of money to vouch their pension payment. Therefore, a lower income will be accepted.

Payment spread due to place

Taking the direction place as an independent variable into history, one can reason, that particularly in the top direction the payment spread additions. “ With higher instruction and higher making demands aˆ¦ the gender wage spread is besides higher ” ( Veverkova , 2010 ) . The important high spreads in first major category places are chiefly due to single bargaining. As payment is contractual regulated and adult females have no protection via corporate understandings, they are frequently discriminated. Furthermore, adult females normally start their calling in top direction places later than work forces as they interrupt their work for kid attention. Doing so, they eventually accept lower rewards. A 3rd ground can be found in sector differences.

Payment spread due to sector

Historically and still today, adult females are preponderantly present in services, such as commercialism, disposal, instruction and wellness attention, where societal communicating is of import. This attitude roots in their values of harmoniousness, empathy, caring and integrating ( Crane, Matten, 2007, p.112 ) . Additionally to the long clip bing grounds, the fiscal and economic crisis every bit good as governmental reforms in 2008 have had an tremendous impact on the state of affairs and led to an increasing inequality. Due to reforms, including the decrease of direct revenue enhancements ( with advantageous consequence for high-income groups ) and sweetening of indirect revenue enhancements ( with disadvantageous consequence for low-income groups ) , the state of affairs of adult females ‘s changed for the worse.

Furthermore, troubles returning to work after pregnancy break every bit good as unemployment affected particularly the female population. Several entreaties by the Czech adult females ‘s Lobby, a web of organisations that defend adult females ‘s rights, to look into this debatable subject were without success.

Role of Czechs bench

Another point which is mentionable and has a fringy impact on the still bing payment spread is the function of the tribunal and bench. As equal wage is chiefly regulated by European and Czech jurisprudence, adult females have the right to claim. Harmonizing to Koldinsika ( 2007 ) , “ no instances were brought before the tribunal. ” Reasons for their passivity can be seen in the inefficiency of Czechs tribunals based on frequent statute law alterations which than led to an overall misgiving within the society. Furthermore, the inactive place towards tribunals and claims by adult females can be explained by their historical function in the society where they were chiefly responsible for household integrating.

Enterprises to cut down the gender payment spread

Governmental enterprises

Established by the authorities in 2001 the Government Council for the Equal Opportunities ( 2009 ) of Women and Men represents a lasting consultative organic structure in the country of equal rights and opportuntities between male and female. It is responsible for fixing proposals towards an equal dainty.

Their chief undertakings are:

discussing and urging to the Government basic policies

organizing chief waies of ministerial policies

puting a scope of precedences for ministerial undertakings

placing current jobs in society

measuring the efficiency of the execution of undertakings

As the council is merely held when necessary, there is terrible unfavorable judgment that they merely focus on formal facets and do non supply effectual consequences. The thought to set up quotas, e.g. a adult females quota in top direction places of about 30 % were discussed several creases but ne’er been realized.

Social spouse enterprises

Trade Unions and Employer Organisations

Trade brotherhoods every bit good as employer administrations are covering with equality related subjects. Different runs have been supported on national and word broad degree by the Committee for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men in the major trade brotherhood alliance A?MKOS. These did non take to important alterations. Employer administrations in contrast merely touch in the subject indirectly by supplying educational activities or general enlightening support ( Veverkova , 2010 ) .

Corporate understandings

As corporate understandings are coordinated by one-year marks, these marks have to include subjects like favoritism and equal chances. Again, we have to separate between high-ranking corporate understandings ( HLCA ) and enterprise-level understandings ( ELCA ) . It is statable, that within HLCA merely general commissariats towards favoritism are made, such as “ Pay conditions for work forces and adult females must be equal ” or “ Employees who perform the same work or work of the same value are entitled for the same wage ” ( Veverkova , 2010 ) . Detailed premises are non included in corporate understandings. On the endeavor degree, more specific commissariats towards the spread and inequality can be found. However, they are included into understandings seldom every bit good.

Enterprises by the European Union

As already mentioned, the debatable and critical issue of unequal payment does non merely exist in the Czech Republic. As it seems to be a common subject within European states, the EU statute law besides deals with unequal payment between genders. Therefore the EU accession had a important impact on the Czech Republic as they had to accommodate to European jurisprudence. Already before they became a member, some little harmonization procedures were necessary. As the overall Czech jurisprudence was similar to the European 1, the acceptance, particularly in countries like revenue enhancement and finance, were realized without jobs. The most of import alteration refering inequality was done in 2000 by get downing to implement the new labor codification and in 2004 by the enacting of directives which entirely dealt with societal protection and equal rights towards employment and wage ( Koldinsika , 2007 ) . The so called Principle of Equal wage chiefly focuses on wage in private and public sector.

Approachs to cut down the gender wage spread

There are several undertakings carried out to cut down or even shut the spread of payment between work forces and adult females. Most of them are developed by non-profit administrations or civic associations. As they are extremely dependent on financess, e.g. the European Social Fund, undertakings have merely a little opportunity to be implemented wholly. Their work chiefly concentrates on supplying information about farther instruction of adult females or set uping kinder gardens within the company. The success of undertakings depends hence on fiscal support. Following to these informational bases, several undertakings were conducted on a national degree to heighten equal developments, e.g.

Contest “ Company of the twelvemonth: Equal Opportunities ”

EQ-Train ( cooperation with other European administrations covering with payment inequality )

Equal chance audit ( concentrate on work-life-balance )

Besides on organizational degree, motions towards gender equality presents play a major function, for case back uping adult females in direction places.

Drumhead

Overall it is statable that there is a wide consciousness in relation to gender inequality. Primarily the non-profit sector plays an active function in get the better ofing these differences. As major undertakings merely have been implemented within the last 5 old ages, results are non shown yet. Follow-up activities are necessary to recognize major alterations and cut down the payment spread.

Particularly the EU statute law which was implemented in the Czech Republic had a major impact. In pattern Czechs are far off from the ideal of the statute law definitions.

Refering to Koldinsika ( 2007 ) , “ more judicial instances would be really utile. ” Thereby, trade brotherhoods should be more active in this field promoting adult females to action for their right. To cut down spreads due to age classs, re-entry after pregnancy have to be simplify every bit good as societal conditions have to be improved by organizational kinder gardens, flexible working hours or tele working. Gaps based on place merely can be reduced by promoting adult females to high direction activities. A adult females quota would be one possibility. Since instruction plays a major function in relation to the payment spread, universities and sectors, were adult females are non representative plenty should seek to pull them. As the paper has shown, enterprises initiated by authorities, European jurisprudence or societal administrations already exist. They have to be improved and communicated national broad.

Therefore a positive tendency towards gender payment spread in future seems to be realistic.

Appendix

Appendix 1: Economic background

Czech Republic

EU 27

GDP per capita

( in buying power criterions, index: EU27=100, 2008 )

80,6

100

Real GDP growing

( % alteration on old twelvemonth )

( one-year mean 2004-2007 )

5,9 %

2,63 %

Average monthly labor costs, in a‚¬ ( 2005 )

1.201 a‚¬ ( 2007 )

2.981 a‚¬

Gross one-year net incomes, in a‚¬ ( 2005 )

8.284 a‚¬ ( 2006 )

28.992 a‚¬

Gender wage spread

( Difference between mean net incomes of male and female employees as per centum of net incomes of male employees, 2007 )

23,6 %

n.a.

Employment rate

( 15-64 old ages ) ( 2007 )

66,1 %

65,4 %

Female employment rate ( 15-64 old ages ) ( 2007 )

57,3 %

58,3 %

Unemployment rate

( 15-64 old ages ) ( 2007 )

5,3 %

7,1 %

Beginning based on: EUROSTAT ( 2009 ) , Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

Appendix 2: The Czech Republic – key basicss

A

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

GDP, Changeless 2000 Prices ( $ billion )

164.55

174.41

179.99

173.09

174.35

179.23

186.04

GDP growing rate ( % )

6.50

5.99

3.20

-3.84

0.73

2.80

3.80

GDP, Changeless 2000 Prices, per capita ( $ )

16076

17051

17610

16949

17090

17589

18280

Inflation ( % )

7.40

6.90

4.30

8.61

10.91

11.59

10.68

Exports, entire as % of GDP

76.36

82.10

78.34

70.12

72.41

79.68

87.88

Imports, entire as % of GDP

73.70

77.92

73.73

69.50

72.67

79.38

87.40

Mid-Year Population, Total ( million )

10.24

10.23

10.22

10.21

10.20

10.19

10.18

Unemployment rate ( % )

7.40

6.90

4.30

8.61

10.91

11.59

10.68

Beginning based on: “ Czech Republic: State Analysis Report ” ( 2009 ) Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

Appendix 3: Industrial dealingss, wage and working clip

Czech Republic

EU 27

( unweighted )

Trade brotherhood denseness ( % )

( Union members as per centum of all employees in dependent employment )

Approx. 22 %

n.a.

Employer administration denseness ( % )

( Percentage of employees employed by companies who are members of an employer administration )

No information

n.a.

Corporate bargaining coverage ( % )

( Percentage of employees covered by corporate understandings )

26,5 % A?MKOS merely

n.a.

Jointly agreed wage addition ( % )

( one-year mean 2004-2007 )

3,9 %

5,53 %

Actual wage addition ( % ) ( one-year mean 2004-2007 )

1,1 %

2,1 %

Jointly agreed hebdomadal working hours ( 2007 )

38 hours

38,6 hours

Actual hebdomadal working hours ( 2007 )

41,2 hours

40 hours

Beginning: European Industrial Relations Observatory ( EIRO ) and EUROSTAT ( 2009 ) , Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

Appendix 4: Trade brotherhood rank in working age population and among employees ( in % )

Year / Month

Proportion of brotherhood members in population aged over 15 old ages

Proportion of brotherhood members among employees

1990 / October

62

84

1995 / September

31

41

2000 / October

14

24

2003 / July

12

22

Beginning: CVVM, undertaking MS 5 ‘Methods and effectivity of interceding involvements ‘ , study of the population, 2003, Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

Appendix 5:

Corporate members of SP A?R

Association of Industrial Enterprises of Moravia and Silesia

Czech-Moravian Electrotechnical Association

Association of Automotive Industries

Transport Union

Association of the Chemical Industry of the Czech Republic

Czech Association of Energy Sector Employers

Corporate members of KZPS:

Association of the Textiles, Clothing and Leather Industry

Association of Building Entrepreneurs of the Czech Republic

Cooperative Association of the Czech Republic

SPA? A?R

Union of Employers ‘ Associations of the Czech Republic

Employers ‘ Association of Mining and Oil Industries

Agricultural Association of the Czech Republic

Beginning: “ Czech Republic: Industrial dealingss profile ” ( 2009, Retrieved from European Industrial Relations Observatory

Appendix 6: Average Net incomes by Age Group for 2002

Beginning: Womans and work forces in informations, Czech Statistical Office, 2003, published in: Koldinska , K. ( 2007 ) . Gender Equality: Before and After the Enlargement of EU: The Case of the Czech Republic. European Law Journal, 13 ( 2 ) , 238-252. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0386.2007.00366.x.

Appendix 7: Average Net incomes by Education Attainment for 2002

Beginning: Womans and work forces in informations, Czech Statistical Office, 2003, published in: Koldinska , K. ( 2007 ) . Gender Equality: Before and After the Enlargement of EU: The Case of the Czech Republic. European Law Journal, 13 ( 2 ) , 238-252. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0386.2007.00366.x.