Sample of Tetracarpidium conophorum root ( Nigerian walnut ) was analysed for phytochemical composing, Vitamins and Mineral components. Phytochemical showing and subsequent quantification revealed the presence of bioactive compounds. Tannin,0.545mg/g Saponin,10.705mg/g, Alkaloid,0.41mg/g, Oxalate,0.895mg/g, Phenols, 0.215mg/g.
The mineral analysis revealed K,0.002mg/g, Ca,0.004mg/g, Na,0.002, Mg,0.105mg/g, Fe,0.004mg/g, Zn,0.000045, Mn, 0.000021mg/g, Cu, 0.00009mg/g, Cr,0.000029mg/g.
Vitamin composing consequences showed that the works roots contained Thiamine ( B1 ) 0.002mg/g, Ascorbic acid ( C ) 4.1mg/g, Riboflavin ( B2 ) 0.004mg/g, Niacin,0.004mg/g, Cyanocobalamin ( B12 ) 0.001mg/g.
The consequences proved that Tetracarpidium conophorum root could be a possible beginning of utile drugs preparation.
Cardinal words: Tetracarpidium conophorum, Coula edulis, phytochemical, alimentary, root
Walnut, common name for a little blossoming workss are of import for the nuts and timber most of them produce and for its representative genus. Walnut comprises such households as Juglandaceae ( English walnut ) , Euphorbiaceae ( African walnut ) and Olacaceae ( African walnut ) . Each household has its ain curious features but they have some things in common such as the nuts. Juglandaceae is largely found in the Southeast Europe, to Japan and more widely in the New universe. Tetracarpidium conophorum ( household Euphorbiaceae ) is found in Nigeria and Cameroon while Coula edulis ( household Olacaceae ) which is besides referred to as African walnut is found in Congo, Gabon and Liberia ( Wikipedia,2008 ) . This study looked into the root of Tetracarpidium conophorum.
Tetracarpidium conophorum is a mounting shrub 10-20ft long, it is known in the Southern Nigeria as ukpa ( Igbo ) , Western Nigeria as awusa or Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia ( Yoruba ) .It is known in the littoral and the western Cameroon as kaso or ngak ( Dalziel,1937 ) . It is found in Uyo, Akamkpa, Akpabuyo, Lagos, Kogi, Ajaawa-Ogbomoso and Ibadan. This works is cultivated chiefly for the nuts which are cooked and consumed as bites ( Oke,1995 ) . A acrimonious gustatory sensation is normally observed upon imbibing H2O instantly after eating the nuts. This could be attributed to the presence of chemical substances such as alkaloid. Ayodele ( 2003 ) reported the presence of oxalate, phylates and tannic acid in the natural Tetracarpidium conophorum nuts. Edem ( 2009 ) reported on the proximate composing, ascorbic acid and heavy metal contents of the nut. Oyenuga ( 1997 ) reported on the amino acid and fatty acerb constituents of the nut and on the usage of its foliage juice for the intervention of drawn-out and changeless hiccough. Nwokolo ( 1987 ) besides reported on the impact of traditional processing on the food and centripetal qualities of the nut. Okpero ( 2001 ) reported on the methods of treating the Tetracarpidium conophorum nuts while Okafor ( 1988 ) reported on the usage of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds and treating waste in farm animal provender preparation. Comparative surveies of the degree of poison in the seeds of Terminalia latappa ( Indian Almond ) and coula edulis ( African walnut ) was reported by Ekpo, ( 2005 ) . The lipid content of this seeds has besides been reported by Ekpo and Eddy. The nutritionary rating of some Nigerian wild seeds, Ganiyu and Mofoluso, ( 2004 ) reported the proximate, mineral, antinutrient composing and Zn bioavailability of some Nigerian wild seeds including tetracarpidium conophorum. Walnuts are considered to be an herb in Traditional Chinese medical specialty. They are said to tonify kidneys, strengthen the dorsum and articulatio genuss, moisten the bowels and travel stool. It is believed to halt asthma and is prescribed to be taken between turns of asthma, but non for acute asthma. It is used for elderly as a irregularity remedy. ( Wikipedia,2009 ) . The bark is used in tea as laxative and chewed for odontalgia.It helps to forestall and command high blood force per unit area. Though the nuts are by and large eaten in Nigeria, no work has been reported on the root there has been dearth of informations on the root contents, which is known to bring around chronic cough. Therefore, the aim of this work is to measure the phytochemicals, mineral content and vitamin composing of Tetracarpidium conophorum root in order to determine its possible utility as nutrient and in preparation of drug.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fresh root sample of survey works was collected from Ajaawa, Ogo-oluwa Local Government Area of Ogbomoso in Oyo State, Nigeria. The stuff was washed, cut into little pieces to ease waterlessness, and sundried in the unfastened air for seven yearss, and so oven dried. The dry sample was crushed into all right pulverization and stored in an air tight bottle prior to analysis.
The phytochemical showing was done on the sample utilizing methods as described ( Sofowara,1993 ; AOAC, 1980 ) . Alkaloid were extracted utilizing a somewhat modified method of Maxwell et Al ( 1995 ) . Here, the dried sample was homogenized and the alkaloid extracted from 10g of the sample for 4h utilizing 20 % v/v acetic acid in ethyl alcohol. The infusion was filtered to take cellulose dusts and so concentrated to about one one-fourth of the original volume. One per centum NH4OH was added dropwise until a precipitate occurred. The petroleum alkaloid was dried to constant weight in an oven and the per centum alkaloid calculated. The AOAC, ( 1980 ) method was used for the mineral finding of the trial sample. Ca, Na, K, Mg were determined by fire photometric method while Fe, Zn, manganese, Cu and Cr were determined by atomic soaking up spectrophotometric method. The composing of the water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B1 ( B1 ) , riboflavin ( B2 ) , niacin ( B5 ) , vitamin B12 ( B12 ) were determined by the method of scalar analyser ( 2000 ) While ascorbic acid ( vitamin degree Celsius ) content was determined by the method of ( AOAC,1980 ) . The Bohmand Kocipai-Abyazan method ( 1994 ) was used for the finding of tannic acids, oxalate while saponins was analyzed utilizing that of Peng and Kobayasli ( 1995 ) .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. shows the phytochemical showing consequences of Tetracarpidium conophorum root, it shows
that the root contain oxalate, alkaloid, saponin, tannic acid and phenols.
Table 2.shows the sum of phytonutrient nowadays in the root sample analyzed. The root is rich in
tannic acids, saponins, oxalate, alkaloids and phenols. The presence of saponin shows that
Tetracarpidium conophorum has cytotoxic consequence such as permealization of the bowel. It besides gives
the works the acrimonious gustatory sensation, saponin has relationship with sex endocrines like Pitocin. Oxytocin is a sex
endocrine involved in commanding the oncoming of labor in adult females and the subsequent release of milk ( Okwu and Okwu,2004 ) .
Tetracarpidium conophorum is a good beginning of manganese and Cu, two elements that are really
utile to mankind. Mn is used in the direction of diabetes. ( Edem et al,2009 )
Table 3. The consequences of the mineral analysis indicate 68.20mg/g K, 19.40mg/g
Calcium,20.10mg/g Na ( Na ) , 0.09mg/g Mg ( Mg ) , 0.42mg/g Fe ( Fe ) , 1.26mg/g
Zn ( Zn ) ,59.30mg/g manganese ( Mn ) , 2.4 x10-5 mg/g Cu ( Cu ) ,1.6 x10-5mg/g Cr ( Cr ) .
As a consequence of the presence of ascorbic acid in the root, the works can be used in herbal medical specialty for
the intervention of skin conditions, including eczema, pruritus, psoriasis and parasitic tegument conditions
( D & A ; acirc ; ˆ™Amelio, 1999 ) . This vitamin can besides be used for the intervention of common cold and other
diseases like prostrate malignant neoplastic disease ( Okwu and Okwu,2004 ; Okwu and Okeke, 2003 ) . Other vitamins
though in hint sum are indispensable for organic structure metamorphosis. There is besides an interesting ability of
ascorbic acid as an antioxidant, to forestall or at least minimise the formation of carcinogenic
substances from dietetic stuff ( Hunt et al, 1980 ) . Lack of ascorbic acid is associated with
strivings in the joint and defect in skeletal calcification, anemia, manifestation of abject bleeding from mucose membrane of the oral cavity and GI path ( Hunt et al, 1980 ) . Walnut is used in intervention of dyspepsia, irregularity and diarrhea ( Wolters,2009 ) .
Alkaloids are the most efficient works substances used therapeutically. Pure isolated alkaloids and the man-made derived functions are used as the basic medicative agent because of their analgetic, antispasmodic and bacterial belongingss. This is why the root is believed to halt asthma and is prescribed to be taken between turns of asthma, but non for acute asthma, it & amp ; acirc ; ˆ™s used for aged as a irregularity remedy ( Wikipedia,2009 ) . The presence of tannic acids in root of Tetracarpidium conophorum can back up its strong usage for healing of hemorrhoids, frost bite and varicose ulcers in herbal medical specialty ( Igboko, 1983 ; Maduiyi, 1983 ) . The presence of phenolic compounds in the roots shows that the works may hold antimicrobic potency. This is because phenols and phenolic compounds have been extensively used in disinfections and remain the criterions with which other bacteriocides are compared ( Okwu,2001 ) . The consequence of mineral composing clearly shows that Tetracarpidium conophorum root contains rich beginning of mineral elements. This consequence go so of import when the utility of such minerals like Ca, Mg, Na, K in the organic structure are considered, However, the lower Na content ( 0.00019mg/g ) of Tetracarpidium conophorum is an added advantage because of the direct relationship of Na consumption with high blood pressure in human ( Dahl, 1972 ) . This may be the ground why the works is used to forestall and command high blood force per unit area ( James, 2009 ) .
The presence of Cr even at low concentration is an indicant that the works may be utile for the direction of diabetes. It is a cofactor with insulin in carbohydrate metamorphosis. Therefore if Cr is lacking, insulin will non be effectual ( Gbolahan,2001 ) . The presence of Cu may be responsible for the soaking up of Fe, it is hence frequently seen with Fe of course. Copper is of import for cellular defense mechanism and protection of the mucose membrane, antianaemic and indispensable for the formation of hemoglobin from Fe ( Claude and Paule,1979 ) . The presence of manganese shows that the works can be used to protect bone disease ( James,2009 ) . The activity of this component is noticed in the metamorphosis of nutrient incorporated into the bone. Harmonizing to Claude and Paule ( 1979 ) , manganese is necessary for the operation of the pituitary secretory organ, the pineal secretory organ and the encephalon, it promotes hepatorenal map, combat anemia and besides indispensable for growing. The presence of Zn is an indicant that the root may hold some consequence on the nervus map and male
birthrate. It is of import for normal sexual development, particularly for the development of testicles and
ovaries, it is besides indispensable for reproduction. Zinc stimulates the activity of vitamins, formation of ruddy
and white atoms ( Claude and Paule,1979 ) , healthy operation of the bosom and normal growing ( Elizabeth,1994 ) .
The present survey has shown the phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals composing of Tetracarpidium conophorum ( African walnut ) root. This partially shows the usage of this works in herbal medical specialty. As a rich beginning of phytochemicals, coupled with the presence of the indispensable vitamins and minerals, T. conophorum can be seen as a possible beginning of utile nutrient and drugs. The presence of Saponins supports its anti-inflamatory belongings. This besides proves that the works may be helpful in asthma, rheumatoid and arthritis. High content of ascorbic acid besides indicates that the works can be used to forestall or at least minimise the formation of carcinogenic substances from dietetic stuff. Further surveies has to be carried out to insulate, qualify and clarify the construction of the bioactive compounds from the works for industrial drug preparation.