1. responses to modernism. particularly refusals of some of its totalizing premises and effects. and of its implicit or expressed differentiation between ‘high’ civilization and normally lived life 2. responses to such things as a universe lived under atomic menace and menace to the lithosphere. to a universe of faster communicating. mass mediated world. greater diverseness of civilizations and mores and a attendant pluralism 3. recognitions of and in some senses battles against a universe in which. under a spreading technological capitalist economy. all things are are commodified and fetishized ( made the object of desire ) . and in which echt experience has been replaced by simulation and spectacle
4. reconceptualizations of society. history and the ego as cultural concepts. hence as rhetorical concepts 5. American and British authors of the sixtiess and 1970s “metafiction” ( Kurt Vonnegut. John Barth. Thomas Pynchon. John Fowles. and Angela Carter ) . produced texts that at the same time questioned and violated the conventions of traditional narrative. 6. The outgrowth and proliferation of women’s rightist. multiethnic. multicultural. and postcolonial literature since the 1970s is the most dramatic and important manifestation of the de-centering and de-marginalization specifying both postmodernity and postmodernism 7. Postmodernist literature arose after World War II as a series of reactions against the sensed norms of modernist literature. 8. Postmodernist authors include: Kurt Vonnegut. Joseph Heller. David Foster Wallace
9. a clip marked by the cold war and the surpluss of ingestion. 10. It differs from Modernism by film overing the conventional boundary between “high” and “low” civilization. by a wholly disentangled construction in both clip and infinite. and by multiple gaps instead than a closing 11. It rejects to conform to popular gustatory sensation and combines heterogenous elements. doing it cater to a more sophisticated readership. 12. Genocide that occurred during the Second World War. mass devastation caused by atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. insecurity of Cold War Era. station colonialism issue. every bit good as the domination of transnational corporations and post-industrialism with new engineerings. force. antagonistic civilization and consumer civilization shaped the perceptual experience of postmodern writers
13. Postmodernist authors frequently point to early novels and narrative aggregations as inspiration for their experiments with narrative and construction 14. postmodernism peaked in the 60s and 70s with the publication of Catch-22 in 1961. Lost in the Funhouse in 1968. Slaughterhouse-Five in 1969. Gravity’s Rainbow in 1973. and many others 15. the beginning of station modernism is marked by minutes in critical theory: Jacques Derrida’s “Structure. Sign. and Play” talk in 1966 or every bit late as Ihab Hassan’s use in The Dismemberment of Orpheus in 1971.
* Self reflexiveness: this involves the apparently self-contradictory combination of uneasiness and some kind of historical anchoring * Irony: Post modernism uses sarcasm as a primary manner of look. but it besides abuses. installs. and subverts conventions and normally negotiates contradictions through sarcasm * Boundaries: Post modernism challenges the boundaries between genres. art signifiers. theory and art. high art and the mass media * Concepts: Post modernism is actively involved in analyzing the concepts society creates * Paranoia: The sense of paranoia. the belief that there’s an ordination system behind the pandemonium of the universe is another repeating postmodern subject. For the postmodernist. no telling system exists. so a hunt for order is bootless and absurd. Realism/Naturalism
1. The Midwest. where so many realist plants are set ( particularly those of the “local color” assortment ) . is going progressively tied to the remainder of the state in the late 1800s ( by the flourishing new railway system. most notably ) . Late-19th century Americans have a deep and enduring captivation with the American West. and realist fiction that accurately describes it to readers is heartily received. 2. The US Civil War between the industrial North and the agricultural. slave-owning South influenced the rise of pragmatism literature.
3. The Realists tried to compose truthfully and objectively about ordinary characters in ordinary state of affairss. They reacted against Romanticism. rejecting heroic. adventuresome. unusual. or unfamiliar topics 4. The term “realism. ” which was originally used by the thirteenth-century pedants to depict a belief in the world of thoughts. in the nineteenth century became associated with a group of authors who claimed it as a motto for the motion 5. Friedrich Schiller was the first who used it as a literary term 6. pragmatism evolved into literary motions such as Naturalism and Stream of Consciousness 7. Realists chiefly focused on middle-class characters in their mundane environments and extremely downplayed the secret plan
8. The beginnings of the realist narrative manner can be attributed to Gallic novelist and playwright Honore de Balzac 9. In America. Samuel Clemens was the early innovator of Realism 10. American exile Henry James represents the most skilled and complete practician of Realism in fiction. He was fascinated by brushs between representatives of the New World. America. with members of the Old World. or Europe * Nature is apathetic to adult male
* Character is more of import than action and secret plan ; complex ethical picks are frequently the topic. * Realists show us instead than state * Events make the narrative plausible * Man V nature
1. Known as “The Lost Generation” American authors of the 1920s Brought Modernism to the United States 2. Modernism is characterized by a self-aware interruption with traditional manners of poesy and poetry. 3. Modernists experimented with literary signifier and look. adhering to the modernist axiom to “Make it new. ” 4. Influential in the early yearss of Modernism were the theories of Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) . and Ernst Mach ( 1838–1916 ) . Mach argued. get downing in the eightiess with The Science of Mechanics ( 1883 ) . that the head had a cardinal construction. and that subjective experience was based on the interplay of parts of the head
5. Harmonizing to Freud’s thoughts. all subjective world was based on the drama of basic thrusts and inherent aptitudes. through which the outside universe was perceived. 6. Modernist literature addressed similar aesthetic jobs as modern-day Modernist art. and Gertrude Stein’s abstract Hagiographas. for illustration. have been compared to the fragmental and multi-perspective Cubist pictures of her friend Pablo Picasso. 7. James Joyce was a major modernist author whose schemes in his novel Ulysses ( 1921 ) for picturing the events in the life of his supporter. Leopold Bloom. have come to typify modernism’s attack to fiction.
8. At the get downing some modernists fostered a Utopian spirit. stimulated by inventions in anthropology. psychological science. doctrine. political theory. natural philosophies and depth psychology. 9. the Modernist Period in English literature was foremost and foremost a splanchnic reaction against the Victorian civilization and aesthetic. which had prevailed for most of the 19th century 10. The Gallic Symbolists were admired for the edification of their imagination.
In comparing to much of what was produced in England and America. the Gallic were in front of their clip * significance is subjective. verse forms need non hold a significance * Emphasis on bold experimentation in manner and signifier. reflecting the atomization of society * Rejection of the ideal of a hero as infallible in favour of a hero who is flawed and disillusioned but shows “grace under pressure” * Interest in the interior workings of the human head. sometimes expressed through new narrative techniques such as the watercourse of consciousness * Rejection of traditional subjects and topics