Seasonal Affective Disorder Essay Research Paper Seasonal

Seasonal Affective Disorder Essay, Research Paper

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD, is a common job of people

life in northern United States. Peoples who are affected by this upset

normally suffer from depression, lassitude, inability to concentrate, gorging

and weight addition. Peoples from the north tend to endure more from this upset

because of the sawed-off yearss. It appears, that due to the lack of

sunlight some people suffer from these symptoms. The sawed-off yearss have a

hormonal consequence on the organic structure that causes these symptoms, and the usage of

unreal sunshine is the best manner to alleviate the upset.

It was non until late that SAD was discovered. It was discovered by

Peter Mueller, who was reexamining a instance of a 29-year-old adult female. He had noticed

a form, the adult female? s depression came in the winters and left in the spring.

Over the class of old ages the adult female moved from metropolis to metropolis. Mueller noticed,

that the farther north she moved the early the depression. Mueller had begun to

speculate that the deficiency of sunshine had contributed to the adult females? s depression.

In order to corroborate this he exposed the patient to unreal sunshine. He

found that over a period of clip the patient had recovered from the depression.

Today light therapy is the most normally used method in handling SAD.

The two endocrines that are affected by the sunshine, and are thought to be

the cause of SAD, are melatonin and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Both of these chemicals? are

influenced by photoperiodism, the Earth? s day-to-day dark-light rhythm? ( Wurtman 1989 ) .

Melatonin is the chemical that effects temper and energy degrees. In the human

organic structure melatonin is at its highest at dark and is lowest in the twenty-four hours. There has

been a survey done to see if sunlight has a direct consequence on stamp downing

melatonin. It is known that melatonin degrees in piss are five times higher at

dark than they are in the twenty-four hours. It was non until a 1980 survey that it was known

that melatonin degrees could be straight suppressed with visible radiation. In an experiment,

topics were woken up at two in the forenoon and exposed to a half an hr of

unreal sunshine. The findings were that melatonin degrees were greatly

decreased. The diminution in melatonin normally happens in the early forenoon, but

in a SAD patient this does non happen until approximately two hours subsequently. In order to

stamp down the degrees the patient needs to be exposed to sunshine. It is found,

that when the patient is exposed to the visible radiation there is a important lessening in

depression and the craving for saccharides. It is non known if SAD is

straight caused by melatonin. We are still non certain what is the direct cause

for the depression of SAD. We do cognize why people who suffer from SAD crave

saccharides.

Serotonin is the chemical that regulates a individual & # 8217 ; s appetite for

saccharide rich nutrients. A patient who suffers from SAD, and is given an

unreal shooting of 5-hydroxytryptamine called d-fenfluramine? leads to a lessening in

stress-induced feeding? ( Scientific American 1986 ) . In each individual blood watercourse

we have a endocrine known as trypton that is a derivative of 5-hydroxytryptamine.

When it

enters the cardinal nervous system and reaches a group of cells called rhaphe

nucli it is converted into 5-hydroxytryptamine. The sum of trypton in the blood is

increased when saccharides are consumed. This may explicate why many people who

suffer from SAD have an addition their consumption of saccharides. In proving

consequences it patients who suffer from SAD when given? an 800-calorie, high-

saccharide repast ( six cookies ) , they reported experiencing vigorous and energized?

( Health 1989 ) .

A big ingestion of saccharides is one of the symptoms of SAD. In

a figure of instances, it has been noted that in the autumn a individual enduring from

SAD will increase their consumption of saccharides and lessening in the summer. It

is besides found, that those who crave saccharides tend to devour most of them

in the late afternoon or early eventide. A saccharide craver is found to eat

1,940 Calories at a mealtime. The norm for an grownup female is 1,500 to 2,00

Calories, an grownup male from 2,200 to 2,700 Calories. It is in the early

flushing that the craver consumes? an extra 800 or more Calories individual per

twenty-four hours? ( Wurtman 1989 ) . The addition of saccharides leads to an addition in the

degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine that relieves the symptoms of SAD.

The grounds all seems to force towards deficiency of daytime as the ground

for SAD. Little research, although, has been done on the effects of temperature

and barometric force per unit area on mental wellness. These factors change during different

times of the twelvemonth. In his life-time Abraham Lincoln suffered from two sever

turns with depression. Both of them came? during the two largest barometric

force per unit area alterations recorded at that clip? ( Davis 1994 ) . There is the possibility

that the symptoms of SAD are caused by other seasonable alterations besides daytime.

Obviously, the best intervention for those who suffer from SAD is light

therapy. Although, we still are non for certain what the cause of SAD is we do

cognize that light therapy suppresses the symptoms. The human organic structure needs to be

exposed to the daytime, and our mundane lives may impede our exposure. For

illustration, most people work indoors in either an office or some type of edifice.

This significantly reduces our exposure to daytime. It was found in San Diego

that the male spent in a twenty-four hours an norm of 75 proceedingss in the Sun, and

the female spent an norm of 20. The human organic structure needs more exposure to

the visible radiation to modulate the secernment of 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin.

There is still much proving that needs to be done on SAD. We still are

non certain of the cause but we do hold a solution. The best manner to assist stamp down

SAD is by unreal Sun lamps, but these lamps are expensive. Many of the

bulbs that are used cost over one-hundred dollars. Carbohydrates are an

alternate manner to stamp down the symptoms, but the side consequence is weight addition. It

has been proven in surveies, that those who crave saccharides besides put on

important weight which is lost in the spring. Exposure to daylight will

suppress the symptoms without any side effects. The best method to modulate the

hormonal balance is by regular exposure to daytime.