Seasonal Affective Disorder Essay, Research Paper
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD, is a common job of people
life in northern United States. Peoples who are affected by this upset
normally suffer from depression, lassitude, inability to concentrate, gorging
and weight addition. Peoples from the north tend to endure more from this upset
because of the sawed-off yearss. It appears, that due to the lack of
sunlight some people suffer from these symptoms. The sawed-off yearss have a
hormonal consequence on the organic structure that causes these symptoms, and the usage of
unreal sunshine is the best manner to alleviate the upset.
It was non until late that SAD was discovered. It was discovered by
Peter Mueller, who was reexamining a instance of a 29-year-old adult female. He had noticed
a form, the adult female? s depression came in the winters and left in the spring.
Over the class of old ages the adult female moved from metropolis to metropolis. Mueller noticed,
that the farther north she moved the early the depression. Mueller had begun to
speculate that the deficiency of sunshine had contributed to the adult females? s depression.
In order to corroborate this he exposed the patient to unreal sunshine. He
found that over a period of clip the patient had recovered from the depression.
Today light therapy is the most normally used method in handling SAD.
The two endocrines that are affected by the sunshine, and are thought to be
the cause of SAD, are melatonin and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Both of these chemicals? are
influenced by photoperiodism, the Earth? s day-to-day dark-light rhythm? ( Wurtman 1989 ) .
Melatonin is the chemical that effects temper and energy degrees. In the human
organic structure melatonin is at its highest at dark and is lowest in the twenty-four hours. There has
been a survey done to see if sunlight has a direct consequence on stamp downing
melatonin. It is known that melatonin degrees in piss are five times higher at
dark than they are in the twenty-four hours. It was non until a 1980 survey that it was known
that melatonin degrees could be straight suppressed with visible radiation. In an experiment,
topics were woken up at two in the forenoon and exposed to a half an hr of
unreal sunshine. The findings were that melatonin degrees were greatly
decreased. The diminution in melatonin normally happens in the early forenoon, but
in a SAD patient this does non happen until approximately two hours subsequently. In order to
stamp down the degrees the patient needs to be exposed to sunshine. It is found,
that when the patient is exposed to the visible radiation there is a important lessening in
depression and the craving for saccharides. It is non known if SAD is
straight caused by melatonin. We are still non certain what is the direct cause
for the depression of SAD. We do cognize why people who suffer from SAD crave
Serotonin is the chemical that regulates a individual & # 8217 ; s appetite for
saccharide rich nutrients. A patient who suffers from SAD, and is given an
unreal shooting of 5-hydroxytryptamine called d-fenfluramine? leads to a lessening in
stress-induced feeding? ( Scientific American 1986 ) . In each individual blood watercourse
we have a endocrine known as trypton that is a derivative of 5-hydroxytryptamine.
enters the cardinal nervous system and reaches a group of cells called rhaphe
nucli it is converted into 5-hydroxytryptamine. The sum of trypton in the blood is
increased when saccharides are consumed. This may explicate why many people who
suffer from SAD have an addition their consumption of saccharides. In proving
consequences it patients who suffer from SAD when given? an 800-calorie, high-
saccharide repast ( six cookies ) , they reported experiencing vigorous and energized?
( Health 1989 ) .
A big ingestion of saccharides is one of the symptoms of SAD. In
a figure of instances, it has been noted that in the autumn a individual enduring from
SAD will increase their consumption of saccharides and lessening in the summer. It
is besides found, that those who crave saccharides tend to devour most of them
in the late afternoon or early eventide. A saccharide craver is found to eat
1,940 Calories at a mealtime. The norm for an grownup female is 1,500 to 2,00
Calories, an grownup male from 2,200 to 2,700 Calories. It is in the early
flushing that the craver consumes? an extra 800 or more Calories individual per
twenty-four hours? ( Wurtman 1989 ) . The addition of saccharides leads to an addition in the
degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine that relieves the symptoms of SAD.
The grounds all seems to force towards deficiency of daytime as the ground
for SAD. Little research, although, has been done on the effects of temperature
and barometric force per unit area on mental wellness. These factors change during different
times of the twelvemonth. In his life-time Abraham Lincoln suffered from two sever
turns with depression. Both of them came? during the two largest barometric
force per unit area alterations recorded at that clip? ( Davis 1994 ) . There is the possibility
that the symptoms of SAD are caused by other seasonable alterations besides daytime.
Obviously, the best intervention for those who suffer from SAD is light
therapy. Although, we still are non for certain what the cause of SAD is we do
cognize that light therapy suppresses the symptoms. The human organic structure needs to be
exposed to the daytime, and our mundane lives may impede our exposure. For
illustration, most people work indoors in either an office or some type of edifice.
This significantly reduces our exposure to daytime. It was found in San Diego
that the male spent in a twenty-four hours an norm of 75 proceedingss in the Sun, and
the female spent an norm of 20. The human organic structure needs more exposure to
the visible radiation to modulate the secernment of 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin.
There is still much proving that needs to be done on SAD. We still are
non certain of the cause but we do hold a solution. The best manner to assist stamp down
SAD is by unreal Sun lamps, but these lamps are expensive. Many of the
bulbs that are used cost over one-hundred dollars. Carbohydrates are an
alternate manner to stamp down the symptoms, but the side consequence is weight addition. It
has been proven in surveies, that those who crave saccharides besides put on
important weight which is lost in the spring. Exposure to daylight will
suppress the symptoms without any side effects. The best method to modulate the
hormonal balance is by regular exposure to daytime.