Structural and semantic Characteristics of Nouns Essay

Contentss:

I. Introduction

1.1. General features of the work

1.2. General Characteristics of English Nouns

The Main Part

2.1. Main Features of English Nouns

2.1.1. The Class of Case

2.1.2. The Class of Number of English Nouns

2.2. Structural Semantic Features of English Nouns

2.2.1. Morphologic Features of Nouns

2.2.2. Syntactic Features of Nouns

2.2.3. Features of nouns due the manner of their composing

2.2.4. Semantical Features of Nouns

2.3. English Nouns in Speech

2.3.1. Noun Grammemes in Speech

2.3.2. The Use of Articles with Nouns in Some Set Expsessions

2.3.3. Trial Exercises

2.4. Comparison of English and Russian nouns

II. Decision

III. Bibliography

IV. Appendix

I. Introduction

1.1 General features of the work

The subject of my making work sounds as following: & # 8220 ; English Nouns and Their Structural Semantic Characteristics & # 8221 ; . This making work can be characterized by the followers:

2. Actuality of the subject.

The noun is a word showing substance in the widest sense of the word. In the construct of substance we include non merely names of life existences ( e.g. male child, miss, bird ) and exanimate things ( e.g. tabular array, chair, book ) , but besides names of abstract impressions, i.e. qualities, slates, actions ( kindness, strength, slumber, fright, conversation, battle ) , abstracted from their carriers. In address these types of nouns are treated in different ways, so one, who does non cognize ways of intervention, can do errors in his address. Standing on such land, we considered the subject of the work existent plenty to do probe.

3. The undertakings and purposes of the work.

1. The first purpose of my work is to give definition to the term & # 8220 ; noun & # 8221 ; .

2. Second undertaking is to depict chief characteristics of English nouns.

3. Third undertaking of my work is to give structural semantics features to English nouns.

4. The freshness of the work.

Our work possesses novelty concluded in the fact that I worked out my ain trial exercisings dealt with the composing of nouns and right use of them. [ 1 ]

5. Practical significance of the work.

In our sentiment the practical significance of our work is difficult to be overvalued. This work reflects modern tendencies in linguistics and we hope it would function as a good manual for those who wants to get the hang modern English linguistic communication.

6. Wayss of scientific probe used within the work.

The chief method for roll uping our work is the method of comparative analysis, interlingual rendition method and the method of statistical research.

7. William claude dukenfields of elaboration.

The present work might happen a good manner of connoting in the undermentioned domains:

1. In High Schools and scientific circles of lingual sort it can be successfully used by instructors and philologues as modern stuff for composing research works covering with English nouns.

2. It can be used by instructors of schools, secondary schools and colleges by instructors of English as a practical manual for learning English grammar.

3. It can be utile for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her cognition in English.

8. Linguists worked with the subject.

As the base for our making work we used the plants of Russian linguists B.I.Rogovskaya, V. Kaushanskaya, M. Blokh and others [ 2 ]
.

8. Content of the work.

The present making work consists of four parts: debut, the chief portion, decision and bibliography. It besides includes the appendix where some interesting tabular arraies, strategies and exemplifying thematic stuffs were gathered. Within the debut portion, which includes two points we gave the brief description of our making work ( the first point ) and gave general impression of the word & # 8220 ; noun & # 8221 ; . The chief portion of our making work includes several points. There we discussed such jobs as chief characteristics of English nouns, structural-semantic features of them, and described ways of intervention of English nouns in address. We besides compared nouns of English and Russian linguistic communications. In the decision to our making work we tried to pull some consequences from the scientific probes made within the chief portion of our making work. In bibliography portion we mentioned more than 20 beginnings of which were used while roll uping the present work. It includes lingual books and articles covering with the subject, a figure of used lexicons and encyclopaedia and besides some cyberspace beginnings.

1.2 General Characteristics of English Nouns

The word “ noun ” comes from the Latin nomen intending “ name. ” Word classes like nouns were foremost described by Sanskrit grammarian Painini and ancient Greeks like Dionysios Thrax, and defined in footings of their morphological belongingss. For illustration, in Ancient Greece, nouns can be inflected for grammatical instance, such as dative or accusatory. Verbs, on the other manus, can be inflected for tenses, such as past, present or future, while nouns can non. Aristotle besides had a impression of onomata ( nouns ) and rhemata ( verbs ) which, nevertheless, does non precisely match our impressions of verbs and nouns. In her thesis, Vinokurova has a more elaborate treatment of the historical beginning of the impression of a noun.

Expressions of natural linguistic communication will hold belongingss at different degrees. They have formal belongingss, like what sorts of morphological prefixes or postfixs they can take, and what sorts of other looks they can unite with. but they besides have semantic belongingss, i.e. belongingss refering to their significance. The definition of nouns on the top of this page is therefore a formal definition. That definition is noncontroversial, and has the advantage that it allows us to efficaciously separate nouns from non-nouns. However, it has the disadvandage that it does non use to nouns in all linguistic communications. For illustration in Russian, there are no definite articles, so one can non specify nouns by agencies of those. There are besides several efforts of specifying nouns in footings of their semantic belongingss. Many of these are controversial, but some are discussed below. Expressions of natural linguistic communication will hold belongingss at different degrees. They have formal belongingss, like what sorts of morphological prefixes or postfixs they can take, and what sorts of other looks they can unite with. but they besides have semantic belongingss, i.e. belongingss refering to their significance. The definition of nouns on the top of this page is therefore a formal definition. That definition is noncontroversial, and has the advantage that it allows us to efficaciously separate nouns from non-nouns. However, it has the disadvandage that it does non use to nouns in all linguistic communications. For illustration in Russian, there are no definite articles, so one can non specify nouns by agencies of those. There are besides several efforts of specifying nouns in footings of their semantic belongingss. Many of these are controversial, but some are discussed below.

In traditional school grammars, one frequently encounters the definition of nouns that they are all and merely those looks that refer to a individual, topographic point, thing, event, substance, quality, or thought, etc. This is a semantic definition. It has been criticized by modern-day linguists as being rather uninformative. Part of the job is that the definition makes usage of comparatively general nouns ( “ thing, ” “ phenomenon, ” “ event ” ) to specify what nouns are. The being of such general nouns shows us that nouns are organized in systematic hierarchies. But other sorts of looks are besides organized in hierarchies. For illustration all of the verbs “ amble, ” “ saunter, ” “ pace, ” and “ pace ” are more specific words than the more general “ walk. ” The latter is more specific than the verb “ move. ” But it is improbable that such hierarchies can be used to specify nouns and verbs. Furthermore, an influential theory has it that verbs like “ kill ” or “ die ” refer to events, and so they fall under the definition. Similarly, adjectives like “ xanthous ” or “ hard ” might be thought to mention to qualities, and adverbs like “ outside ” or “ upstairs ” seem to mention to topographic points. Worse still, a trip into the forests can be referred to by the verbs “ amble ” or “ walk. ” But verbs, adjectives and adverbs are non nouns, and nouns are n’t verbs. So the definition is non peculiarly helpful in separating nouns from other parts of address.

Another semantic definition of nouns is that they are prototypically referential. That definition is besides non really helpful in separating existent nouns from verbs. But it may still correctly place a nucleus belongings of nounhood. For illustration, we will be given to utilize nouns like “ sap ” and “ auto ” when we wish to mention to saps and autos, severally. The impression that this is prototypocal reflects the fact that such nouns can be used, even though nil with the corresponding belongings is referred to:

John is no sap.

If I had a auto, I ‘d travel to Marakech.

The first sentence above does n’t mention to any saps, nor does the 2nd one refer to any peculiar auto.

In most instances in handling English nouns we shall maintain to the construct of scientists that we refer to post-structural inclination It ‘s because they combine the thoughts of traditional and structural syntacticians. The noun is classified into a separate word- group because:

1.they all have the same lexical – grammatical significance:

substance / thing

2.according to their signifier – they ‘ve two grammatical classs:

figure and instance

3.they all have typical stem-building elements:

– Er, – ist, – ship, – ment, -hood… .

4.typical combinability with other words:

most frequently left-hand combinability.

5.function – the most characteristic characteristic of nouns is – they can be observed in all syntactic maps but predicate.

From the grammatical point of position most of import is the division of nouns into countables and un-countables with respect to the class of figure and into declinables and indeclinables with respect to the class of instance [ 3 ]
. So after depicting grammatical classs of English nouns we will seek to sort them from different points of position.

II. The Main Part

2.1 Main Features of English Nouns.

2.1.1 The Class of Case

The class of instance of nouns is the system of opposemes ( such as miss & # 8212 ; miss ‘s in English, & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 8212 ; ( & # 1086 ; ) & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; in Russian ) demoing the dealingss of the noun to other words in address. Case dealingss reflect the dealingss of the substances the nouns name to other substances, actions, provinces, etc. in the universe of world [ 4 ]
. In the sentence & # 8216 ; I took John ‘s chapeau by error & # 8217 ; the instance of the noun & # 8216 ; John ‘s & # 8217 ; shows its relation to the noun chapeau, which is some contemplation of the dealingss between John and his chapeau in world.

Case is one of those classs which show the close connexion:

( a ) between linguistic communication and address,

( B ) between morphology and sentence structure.

( a ) A instance opposeme is, like any other opposeme, a unit of the linguistic communication system, but the indispensable difference between the members of a instance opposeme is in their combinability in address. This is peculiarly clear in a linguistic communication like Russian with a developed instance system. Compare, for case, the combinability of the nominative instance and that of the oblique instances. See besides the difference in the combinability of each oblique instance: & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; , . & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; , & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; , etc.

We can see here that the difference between the instances is non so much a affair of intending as a affair of combinability. It can be said that & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; , etc. are united paradigmatically in the Russian linguistic communication on the footing of their syntagmatic differences in address. Similarly, the members of the instance opposeme John & # 8212 ; John ‘s are united paradigmatically on the footing of their syntagmatic differences.

Naturally, both members of an English noun instance opposeme have the characteristics of English nouns, including their combinability. Therefore, they may be preceded by an article, an adjectival, a numerical, a pronoun, etc.

a pupil… . a pupil ‘s…

the pupil… , the pupil ‘s…

a good pupil… , a good pupil ‘s…

his brother… , his brother ‘s…

the two brothers… , the two brothers ‘ …

Yet, the common instance grammemes are used in a assortment of combinations where the genitive instance grammemes do non, as a regulation, occur. In the undermentioned illustrations, for case, John ‘s or male childs ‘ can barely be substituted for John or male childs: John saw the male childs, The male childs were seen by John, It was owing to the male childs that… , The male childs and he… , etc.

( B ) Though instance is a morphological class it has a distinguishable syntactical significance. The common instance grammemes fulfil a figure of syntactical maps non typical of genitive instance grammemes, among them the maps of topic and object. The genitive instance noun is for the most portion employed as an property.

All instance opposemes are indistinguishable in content: they contain two peculiar significances, of ‘common ‘ instance and ‘possessive ‘ instance, united by the general significance of the class, that of ‘case ‘ . There is non much assortment in the signifier of instance opposemes either, which distinguishes English from Russian.

An English noun lexeme may incorporate two instance opposemes at most ( adult male & # 8212 ; adult male ‘s, work forces & # 8212 ; work forces ‘s ) . Some lexemes have but one opposeme ( England & # 8212 ; England ‘s, cattle & # 8212 ; cowss ‘s ) . Many lexemes have no instance opposemes at all ( book, intelligence, leaf ) ,

In the opposeme Canis familiaris & # 8212 ; Canis familiaris ‘s, work forces & # 8212 ; work forces ‘s, the ‘common ‘ instance is non marked, i.e. Canis familiaris and work forces have zero morphemes of ‘common instance ‘ . The ‘possessive ‘ instance is marked by the postfix – ‘s /-s, -z, -iz/ . In the opposeme Canis familiariss & # 8212 ; Canis familiariss. ‘ the difference between the antonyms is marked merely in composing. Otherwise the two antonyms do non differ in signifier. So with respect to each other they are-not marked.

Therefore, – ‘s is the merely positive instance morpheme of English nouns. It would be no hyperbole to state that the whole class ‘ depends on this morpheme.

As already mentioned, with respect to the class of instance English nouns autumn under two lexico-grammatical subclasses: declinables, holding instance antonyms, and indeclinables, holding no instance opposites.

The subclass of declinables is relatively limited, including largely nouns denoting populating existences, besides clip and distance [ 5 ]
.

Indeclinables like book, Fe, attention have, as a norm, merely the possible ( or oblique, or lexico-grammatical ) significance of the common instance. But it is sometimes actualized when a instance antonym of these words is formed in address, as in & # 8216 ; The book ‘s doctrine is antique & # 8217 ; . ( The Tribune, Canada ) .

As usual, discrepancies of one lexeme may belong to different subclasses. Youth intending ‘the province of being immature ‘ belongs to the indeclinables. Its variant young person intending ‘a immature adult male ‘ has a instance antonym ( The young person ‘s blunt smiling disarmed her. Black and belongs to the declinables.

Since both instances and prepositions show ‘relations of substances ‘ , some linguists speak of analytical instances in Modern English. To the pupil is said to be an analytical dative instance ( tantamount, for case, to the Russian & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; ) , of the pupil is understood as an analytical possessive instance ( tantamount to & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; ) , by the pupil as an analytical instrumental instance ( californium. & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; ) , etc.

The theory of analytical instances seems to be inconvincing for a figure of grounds.

1. In order to handle the combinations of the pupil, to the pupil, by the pupil as analytical words ( like shall come or has come ) we must see of, to, with every bit grammatical word-morphemes [ 6 ]
. But so they are to be devoid of lexical significance, which they are non. Like most words a preposition is normally polysemous and each significance is singled out in address, in a sentence or a word-combination. Cf. to talk of the pupil, the address of the pupil, intelligence of the pupil, it was sort of the pupil, what became of the pupil, etc.

In each instance of shows one of its lexical significances. Therefore it can non be regarded as a grammatical word-morpheme and the combination of the pupil can non be treated as an analytical word.

2. A grammatical class, as known, is represented in opposemes consisting a definite figure of members. Combinations with different prepositions are excessively legion to be interpreted as opposemes stand foring the class of instance [ 7 ]
.

The figure of instances in English becomes practically limitless.

3. Analytic words normally form opposemes with man-made 1s [ 8 ]
( comes & # 8212 ; came & # 8212 ; will come ) . With prepositional buildings it is different. They are frequently synonymous with man-made words.

E. g. the boy of my friend == my friend ‘s boy ; the wall of the garden == the. garden wall.

On the other manus, prepositional buildings can be used side by side with man-made instances, as in that doll of Mary ‘s, a friend of John ‘s. If we accepted the theory of analytical instances, we should see in of John ‘s a double-case word [ 9 ]
, which would be some rareness in English, there being & # 8226 ; ‘no double-tense words nor double-aspect words and the similar [ 10 ]
.

4. There is much subjectiveness in the pick of prepositions supposed to organize analytical instances [ 11 ]
. Grammarians normally indicate out those prepositions whose significances approximate to the significances of some instances in other linguistic communications or in Old English. But the analogy with other linguistic communications or with an older phase of the same linguistic communication does non turn out the being of a given class in a modern linguistic communication.

Therefore we think it unjustified to talk of units like to the pupil, of the pupil, etc. as of analytical instances. They are combinations of nouns in the common instance with prepositions.

The morpheme – ‘s, on which the class of instance of English nouns depends ( & # 167 ; 83 ) , differs in some respects from other grammatical morphemes of the English linguistic communication and from the instance morphemes of other linguistic communications.

As emphasized by B. A. Ilyish [ 12 ]
, – ‘s is no longer a instance inflection in the classical sense of the word. Unlike such classical inflections, – ‘s may be attached

a ) to adverbs ( of substantival beginning ) , as in yesterday ‘s events,

B ) to word-groups, as in Mary and John ‘s flat, our professor of literature ‘s unexpected going,

degree Celsius ) even to whole clauses, as in the well-worn illustration the adult male I saw yesterday ‘s boy.

& # 1042 ; . A. Ilyish comes to-the decision that the – ‘s morpheme bit by bit develops into a “ form-word ” [ 13 ]
, a sort of atom functioning to convey the significance of belonging, ownership [ 14 ]
.

G. N. Vorontsova does non acknowledge & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ; s as a instance morpheme at all [ 15 ]
. The grounds she puts frontward to confirm her point of position are as follows:

1 ) The usage of – ‘s is optional ( her brother ‘s, of her brother ) .

2 ) It is used with a limited group of nouns outside which it occurs really rarely.

3 ) – ‘s is used both in the singular and in the plural ( kid ‘s, kids ‘s ) , which is non incident- to instance morphemes ( californium. & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; – & # 1072 ; , & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; – & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; ) .

4 ) It occurs in really few plurals, merely those with the irregular formation of the plural member ( oxen ‘s but cows ‘ ) .

5 ) – ‘s does non do an inseparable portion of the construction of the word. It may be placed at some distance from the head-noun of an prenominal group.

“ Been reading that fellow what ‘s his name ‘s onslaughts in the ‘Sunday Times ‘ ? ” ( Bennett ) .

Continuing from these facts G. N. Vorontsova treats – ‘s as a ‘postposition ‘ , a ‘purely syntactical form-word resembling a preposition ‘ , used as a mark of syntactical dependance [ 16 ]
.

In maintaining with this reading of the – ‘s morpheme the writer denies the being of instances in Modern English.

At present, nevertheless, this utmost point of position can barely be accepted [ 17 ]
. The undermentioned statements tend to demo that – ‘s does map as a instance morpheme.

1. The – ‘s morpheme is largely attached to single nouns e, non noun groups. Harmonizing to our statistics this is observed in 96 per cent of illustrations with this morpheme. Cases like The adult male I saw yesterday ‘s boy are really rare and may be interpreted in more ways than one. As already mentioned, the limit line between words and combinations of words is really obscure in English. A word-combination can easy be made to work as one word.

Cf. a hats-cleaned-by-electricity-while-you-wait constitution ( O. Henry ) , the eighty-year-olds ( D. W. ) .

In the last illustration the plural morpheme -s is in fact attached to an adjectival word-combination, turning it into a noun. It can be maintained that the same morpheme & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ; s likewise substantivizes the group of words to which it is attached, and we get something like the man-1-saw-yesterday ‘s boy.

2. Its general significance & # 8212 ; “ the relation of a noun to an other word ” & # 8212 ; is a typical instance significance.

3. The fact that – ‘s occurs, as a regulation, with a more or less limited group of words bears testimony to its non being a “ preposition-like signifier word ” . The usage of the preposition is determined, chiefly, by the significance of the preposition itself and non by the significance of the noun it introduces ( Cf. & # 1086 ; n the tabular array, in the tabular array, under the tabular array, over the table etc. )

4. The fact that the genitive instance is expressed in cattle & # 8212 ; oxen ‘s by – ‘s and in cattles & # 8212 ; cattles ‘ by nothings can non function as an statement against the being of instances in English nouns because – ‘s and zero are here signifiers of the same morpheme

a ) Their significances are indistinguishable.

B ) Their distribution is complementary.

5. As a minor statement against the position that – ‘s is “ a preposition-like word ” , it is pointed out [ 18 ]
that – ‘s differs phonetically from all English prepositions in non holding a vowel, a circumstance restricting its independency.

Yet, it can non be denied that the distinctive features of the – ‘s morpheme are such as to acknowledge no uncertainty of its being basically different from the instance morphemes of other linguistic communications. It is apparent that the instance system of Modern English is undergoing serious alterations.

2.1.2. The Class of Number of English Nouns.

The class of figure of English nouns is the system of opposemes ( such as miss & # 8212 ; misss, pes & # 8212 ; pess, etc. ) demoing whether the noun bases for one object or more than one, in other words, whether its grammatical significance is ‘oneness ‘ or ‘more-than-oneness ‘ of objects.

The connexion of the class with the universe of stuff world, though indirect, is rather crystalline. Its significances reflect the being of single objects and groups of objects in the material universe.

All figure opposemes are indistinguishable in content: they contain two peculiar significances of ‘singular ‘ and ‘plural ‘ united by the general significance of the class, that of ‘number ‘ . But there is a considerable assortment of signifier in figure opposemes, though it is non so great as in the Russian linguistic communication.

An English noun lexeme can incorporate two figure opposemes at most ( plaything & # 8212 ; male childs, male child ‘s & # 8212 ; male childs ‘ ) . Many lexemes have but one opposeme ( table & # 8212 ; tabular arraies ) and many others have no opposemes at all ( ink, intelligence ) .

In the opposeme male child & # 8212 ; boys ‘singularity ‘ is expressed by a nothing morpheme and ‘plurality ‘ is marked by the positive morpheme /-z/ , in spelling -.s. In other words, the ‘singular ‘ member of the opposeme is non marked, and the ‘plural ‘ member is marked.

In the opposeme male child ‘s & # 8212 ; male childs ‘ both members have positive morphemes & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ; s, -s & # 8217 ; , but these morphemes can be distinguished merely in composing. In the spoken linguistic communication their signifiers do non differ, so with respect to each other they are unmarked. They can be distinguished merely by their combinability ( californium. a male child ‘s caput, boys ‘ caputs ) .

In a few noun lexemes of foreign origin both members of a figure opposeme are marked, e.g. symposium & # 8212 ; symposia, genus & # 8212 ; genera, phenomenon & # 8212 ; phenomena, etc. But in the procedure of assimilation this distinctive feature of foreign nouns gets bit by bit lost, and alternatively of medium & # 8212 ; media a new opposeme develops, medium & # 8212 ; mediums ; alternatively of expression & # 8212 ; expression, the usual signifier now is formula & # 8212 ; expressions. In this procedure, as we see, the foreign grammatical morphemes are neglected as such. The & # 8216 ; plural & # 8217 ; morpheme is dropped wholly. The ‘singular ‘ morpheme becomes portion of the root. Finally, the regular -s stoping is added to organize the ‘plural ‘ antonym. As a consequence the ‘singular ‘ becomes unmarked, as typical of English, and the ‘plural ‘ gets its usual grade, the postfix -s.

Since the ‘singular ‘ member of a figure opposeme is non marked, the signifier of the opposeme is, as a regulation, determined by the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme, which, in its bend, depends upon the root of the lexeme.

In the overpowering bulk of instances the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is /-s/ , /-z/ , or /-z/ , in spelling – ( vitamin E ) s, e. g, books, male childs, lucifers.

With the root ox- the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is -en /-n/ .

In the opposeme adult male & # 8212 ; work forces the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is the vowel alteration / & # 230 ; & gt ; e/ . In adult female & # 8212 ; adult females ii is /u & gt ; i/ , in pes & # 8212 ; pess it is /u & # 8212 ; I: / , etc.

In kid & # 8212 ; kids the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is complicated. It consists of the vowel alteration /ai & gt ; i/ and the suffix -ren.

In sheep & # 8212 ; sheep the ‘plural ‘ is non marked, therefore co-occuring in signifier with the ‘singular ‘ . They can be distinguished merely by their combinability: & # 8216 ; one sheep & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; five sheep & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; a sheep was… & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; sheep were… & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; this sheep & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; these sheep & # 8217 ; . The ‘plural ‘ coincides in signifier with the ‘singular ‘ besides in & # 8216 ; cervid, fish, carp, perch, trout, pod, salmon & # 8217 ; , etc. [ 19 ]

All the ‘plural ‘ signifiers enumerated here are signifiers of the same morpheme. This can be proved, as we know, by the individuality of the ‘plural ‘ significance, and the complementary distribution of these signifiers, i.e. the fact that different signifiers are used with different roots.

As already mentioned [ 20 ]
, with respect to the class of figure English nouns fall into two subclasses: countables and uncountables. The former have figure antonyms, the latter have non. Uncountable nouns are once more subdivided into those holding no plural antonyms and those holding no remarkable antonyms.

Nouns like milk, geometry, self-control holding no plural antonyms are normally called by a Latin name & # 8212 ; singularia tantum. Nouns like outskirts, apparels, goods holding no remarkable antonyms are known as pluralia tantum.

As a affair of fact, those nouns which have no figure antonyms are outside the grammatical class of figure. But on the analogy of the majority of English nouns they get oblique ( or lexico-grammatical ) significances of figure. Therefore singularia tantum are frequently treated as singulars and pluralia tantum as plurals.

This is justified both by their signifiers and by their combinability.

Cf. This ( table, book, milk, love ) is…

These ( tabular arraies, books, apparels, goods ) are…

When combinability and organize contradict each other, combinability is decisive, which accounts for the fact that & # 8216 ; police & # 8217 ; or & # 8216 ; cattle & # 8217 ; are regarded as plurals, and & # 8216 ; rubeolas & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; mathematics as singulars.

The lexico-grammatical significance of a category ( or of a subclass ) of words is, as we know, an abstraction from the lexical significances of the words of the category, and depends to a certain extent on those lexical significances. Therefore singularia tantum normally include nouns of certain lexical significances. They are largely material, abstract and corporate nouns, such as sugar, gold, butter, glare, stability, selfishness, humanity, military personnel, peasantry.

Yet it is non every stuff, abstract or corporate noun that belongs to the group of singularia tantum ( e. g. a plastic, a feeling, a crowd ) and, what is more of import, non in all of its significances does a noun belong to this group.

As we have already seen [ 21 ]
, discrepancies of the same lexeme may belong to different subclasses of a portion of address. In most of their significances the words joy and sorrow as abstract nouns are singularia tantum.

E.g. He has been a good friend both in joy and in s & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; w. ( Hornby ) .

But when concrete manifestations are meant, these nouns are countables and have plural antonyms, e. g. the joys and sorrows of life.

Similarly, the words Cu, Sn, hair as stuff nouns are normally singularia tantum, but when they denote concrete objects, they become countables and acquire plural antonyms: a Cu & # 8212 ; Cus, a Sn & # 8212 ; Sns, a hair & # 8212 ; hairs.

Similarly, when the nouns vino, steel, salt denote some kind or assortment of the substance, they become countables.

E. g. an expensive vino & # 8212 ; expensive vinos.

All such instances are non a distinctive feature of the English linguistic communication entirely. They are found in other linguistic communications as good. Cf. & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; and & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; .is a material noun, & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; and & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; as a corporate noun.

& # 8216 ; Joy & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a joy & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; beauty & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a beauty & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; Cu & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a Cu & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; hair & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a hair & # 8217 ; and many other braces of this sort are non homonyms, as suggested by some syntacticians [ 22 ]
, but discrepancies of lexemes related by internal transition.

If all such instances were regarded as homonyms, the figure of homonyms in the English linguistic communication would be practically illimitable. If merely some of them were treated as homonyms, that would give rise to uncontrolled subjectiveness.

The group of pluralia tantum is largely composed of nouns denoting objects dwelling of two or more parts, complex phenomena or ceremonials, e. g. tongs, tweezers, pants, weddings, obsequies. Here besides belong some nouns with a distinguishable collective or stuff significance, e.g. apparels, eaves, Sweets.

Since in these words the -s postfix does non work as a grammatical morpheme, it gets lexicalized and develops into an inseparable portion of the root [ 23 ]
. This, likely, underlies the fact that such nouns as mathematics, optics, linguistics, epidemic parotitiss, rubeolas are treated as singularia tantum.

Nouns like constabulary, reserves, cowss, domestic fowl are pluralia tantum, judging by their combinability, though non by signifier [ 24 ]
.

Peoples in the significance of ‘ & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; ‘ is a denumerable noun. In the significance of ‘ & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; ‘ it belongs to the pluralia tantum. Family in the sense of “ a group of people who are related ” is a denumerable noun. In the significance of “ single members of this group ” it belongs to the pluralia tantum. Therefore, the lexeme household has two discrepancies:

Sg. PL

1 ) household households

2 ) & # 8212 ; household

E. g. Almost every household in the small town has sent a adult male to the ground forces. ( Hornby ) .

Those were the oldest households in Jorkshire. ( Black ) .

Her household were of a delicate fundamental law. ( Bronte ) .

Similar discrepancies are observed in the lexemes commission, authorities, board, crew, etc.

Coloring material in the significance “ ruddy, green, bluish, etc. ” is a denumerable noun. In the significance “ visual aspect of world or truth ” ( e. g. His lacerate apparels gave coloring material to his narrative that prevarication had been attacked by robbers. A. Hornby. ) it has no plural antonym and belongs to the singularia tantum. Colours in the sense of “ stuffs used by painters and creative persons ” has no remarkable antonym and belongs to the pluralia tantum.

Therefore, the lexeme has three discrepancies:

Sg. Pl.

1 ) coloring material colors

2 ) coloring material & # 8212 ;

3 ) & # 8212 ; colorss.

When syntacticians write that the lexical significances of some plurals differ from those of their remarkable antonyms [ 25 ]
, they merely compare different discrepancies of a lexeme.

Sometimes discrepancies of a lexeme may belong to the same lexico-grammatical subclass and yet hold different signifiers of figure opposemes.

Cf. brother ( boy of same parents ) & # 8212 ; brothers

brother ( fellow member ) & # 8212 ; brethren

fish & # 8212 ; fish ( e.g. I caught five fish yesterday. )

fish & # 8212 ; fishes ( ‘different species ‘ , e. g. ocean fishes ) .

A corporate noun is a word that designates a group of objects or existences regarded as a whole, such as “ flock ” , “ squad ” , or “ corporation ” . Although many linguistic communications treat corporate nouns as remarkable, in others they may be interpreted as plural. In British English, phrases such as the commission are run intoing are common ( the alleged understanding in sensu “ in significance ” , that is, with the significance of a noun, instead than with its signifier ) . The usage of this type of building varies with idiom and degree of formality.

All linguistic communications are able to stipulate the measure of referents. They may make so by lexical agencies with words such as English a few, some, one, two, five hundred. However, non every linguistic communication has a grammatical class of figure. Grammatical figure is expressed by morphological and/or syntactic agencies. That is, it is indicated by certain grammatical elements, such as through affixes or figure words. Grammatical figure may be thought of as the indicant of semantic figure through grammar.

Languages that express measure merely by lexical agencies lack a grammatical class of figure. For case, in Khmer, neither nouns nor verbs carry any grammatical information refering figure: such information can merely be conveyed by lexical points such as khlah ‘some ‘ , pii-bey ‘a few ‘ , and so on.

Most linguistic communications of the universe have formal agencies to show differences of figure. The most widespread differentiation, as found in English and many other linguistic communications, involves a simple bipartisan figure contrast between remarkable and plural ( auto / autos ; child / kids, etc. ) . Other more luxuriant systems of figure are described below.

2.2 Structural Semantic Characteristics of English Nouns

2.2.1 Morphologic Features of Nouns

Due to the undermentioned morphological features nouns can be classified in following ways:

1. Nouns that can be counted have two Numberss: singular and plural ( e. g. remarkable: a miss, plural: misss ) .

2. Nouns denoting living existences ( and some nouns denoting exanimate things ) have two instance signifiers: the common instance and the possessive instance.

3. It is dubious whether the grammatical class of gender exists in Modern English for it is barely of all time expressed by agencies of grammatical signifiers.

There is practically merely one gender-forming postfix in Modern English, the postfix -es, showing feminine gender. It is non widely used.

inheritor & # 8212 ; heir-ess

poet & # 8212 ; poet-ess

histrion & # 8212 ; actr-ess

server & # 8212 ; waitr-ess

host – host-ess

king of beasts & # 8212 ; lion-ess

tiger & # 8212 ; tigr-ess [ 26 ]

2.2.2 Syntactic Features of Nouns

Due the syntactical features nouns can be classified in following ways:

The main syntactical maps of the noun in the sentence are those of the topic and the object. But it may besides be used as an property or a predicative.

The Sun was lifting in all his glorious beauty. ( Dickens ) ( capable )

Troy and Yates followed the tourers. ( Heym ) ( object )

He ( Bosinney ) was an designer… ( Galsworthy ) ( predicative )

Mary brought in the fruit on a tray and with it a glass bowl, and a bluish dish… ( Mansfield ) ( property ; the noun glass is used in the common instance )

The hero and heroine, of class, merely arrived from his male parent ‘s yacht. ( Mansfield ) ( property ; the noun male parent is used in the possessive instance )

A noun preceded by a preposition ( a prepositional phrase ) may be used as property, prepositional indirect object, and adverbial qualifier.

To the left were clean window glasss of glass. ( Ch. Bronte ) ( property )

Bicket did non reply, his pharynx felt excessively dry. He had heard of the constabulary. ( Galsworthy ) ( object ) She went into the drawing-room and lighted the fire. ( Mansfield ) ( Adverbial qualifier ) .

“ Stop everything, Laura! ” cried Jose in amazement. ( Mansfield ) ( Adverbial qualifier ) .

The noun is by and large associated with the article. Because of the comparative scarceness of morphological differentiations in English in some instances merely articles show that the word is a noun.

A noun can be modified by an adjectival, a pronoun, by another noun or by verbals.

2.2.3 Features of nouns due the manner of their composing

Harmonizing to their morphological composing we distinguish simple, derivative and compound nouns.

1. Simple nouns are nouns which have neither prefixes no postfixs. They are indecomposable: chair, tabular array, room, map, fish, work.

2. Derivative nouns are nouns which have derivative elements ( prefixes or postfixs or both ) : reader, crewman, inkiness, childhood, misconduct, rawness.

Productive noun-forming postfixs are:

-er: reader, instructor, worker

-ist: Communist, telegrapher, playwright

-ess: inheritress, hostess, actress

-ness: sloppiness, lunacy, inkiness

-ism: socialism, patriotism, imperialism

Unproductive postfixs are:

-hood: childhood, manhood

-dom: freedom

-ship: friendly relationship, relationship

-meat: development

-ance: importance

-ence: dependance

-ty: inhuman treatment

-ity: generousness

3. Compound nouns are nouns built from two or more roots. Compound nouns frequently have one emphasis. The significance of a compound frequently differs from the significances of its elements.

The chief types of compound nouns are as follows:

( a ) noun-stem+noun-stem: appletree, sweet sand verbena ;

( B ) adjective-stem+noun-stem: blackbird, wild hyacinth ;

( degree Celsius ) verb-stem+noun-stem: cutpurse ; the root of a gerund or of a participial may be the first constituent of a compound noun:

dining room, reading-hall, dancing-girl.

2.2.4 Semantical Features of Nouns

Nouns autumn under two categories: ( A ) proper nouns ; ( B ) common nouns [ 27 ]
.

a ) Proper nouns are single, names given to divide individuals or things. As respects their significance proper nouns may be personal names ( Mary, Peter, Shakespeare ) , geographical names ( Moscow, London, the Caucasus ) , the names of the months and of the yearss of the hebdomad ( February, Monday ) , names of ships, hotels, nines, etc.

A big figure of nouns now proper were originally common nouns ( Brown, Smith, Mason ) .

Proper nouns may alter their significance and go common nouns:

“ George went over to the tabular array and took a sandwich and a glass of bubbly. ( Aldington )

B ) Common nouns are names that can be applied to any person of ad buttocks of.persons or things ( e.g. adult male, Canis familiaris, book ) , aggregations of similar persons or things regarded as a individual unit ( e. g. peasantry, household ) , stuffs ( e. g. snow, Fe, cotton ) or abstract impressions ( e.g. kindness, development ) .

Therefore there are different groups of common nouns: category nouns, corporate nouns, nouns of stuff and abstract nouns.

1. Class nouns denote individuals or things belonging to a category. They are countables and have two. Numberss: singular and plural. They are by and large used with an article.

“ Well, sir, ” said Mrs. Parker, “ I was n’t in the store above a great trade. ” ( Mansfield )

He goes to the portion of the town where the stores are. ( Lessing )

2. Corporate nouns denote a figure or aggregation of similar persons or things as a individual unit.

Corporate nouns autumn under the undermentioned groups:

( a ) nouns used merely in the remarkable and denoting-a figure of things collected together and regarded as a individual object: leaf, machinery.

It was non reposeful, that green leaf. ( London )

Machinery new to the industry in Australia was introduced for fixing land. ( Agricultural Gazette )

( B ) nouns which are remarkable in signifier though plural in significance:

constabularies, domestic fowl, cowss, people, aristocracy They are normally called nouns of battalion. When the topic of the sentence is a noun of battalion the verb used as predicate is in the plural:

I had no thought the constabulary were so devilishly prudent. ( Shaw )

Unless cowss are in good status in calving, milk production will ne’er make a high degree. ( Agricultural Gazette )

The conditions was warm and the people were sitting at their doors. ( Dickens )

( degree Celsius ) nouns that may be both remarkable and plural: household, crowd, fleet, state. We can believe of a figure of crowds, fleets or different states every bit good as of a individual crowd, fleet, etc.

A little crowd is lined up to see the invitees arrive. ( Shaw )

Consequently they were shortly afoot, and walking in the way of the scene of action, towards which crowds of people were already pouring from a assortment of quarters. ( Dickens )

3. Nouns of material denote stuff: Fe, gold, paper, tea, H2O. They are uncountables and are by and large used without any article.

There was a aroma of honey from the lime-trees in flower. ( Galsworthy )

There was java still in the urn. ( Wells )

Nouns of stuff are used in the plural to denote different kinds of a given stuff.

… that his senior counted upon him in this endeavor, and had consigned a measure of choice vinos to him… ( Thackeray )

Nouns of stuff may turn into category nouns ( therefore going countables ) when they come to show an single object of definite form.

Comparison:

– To the left were clean window glasss of

glass. ( Ch. Bronte )

“ He came in here, ” said the server looking at the visible radiation through the tumbler, “ ordered a glass of this ale. ” ( Dickens )

But the individual in the glass made a face at her, and Miss Moss went out. ( Mansfield ) .

4. Abstract nouns denote some quality, province, action or thought: kindness, unhappiness, battle. They are normally uncountables, though some of them may be countables.

Therefore when the childs saw that female parent looked neither frightened nor offended, they gathered new bravery. ( Dodge )

Accustomed to John Reed ‘s maltreatment & # 8212 ; I ne’er had an thought of providing it. ( Ch. Bronte )

It ‘s these people with fixed thoughts. ( Galsworthy )

Abstract nouns may alter their significance and go category nouns. This alteration is marked by the usage of the article and of the plural figure:

beauty a beauty beauties

sight a sight sights

He was antiphonal to beauty and here was cause to react. ( London )

She was a beauty. ( Dickens )

… but she is n’t one of those horrid regular beauties. ( Aldington )

2.3 English Nouns in Speech.

2.3.1 Noun Grammemes in Speech

An English noun lexeme may incorporate four words at most ( boy, male childs, male child ‘s, boys ‘ ) . Each of these words, as we know, represents non merely the lexeme, but a certain grammeme as good. The grammeme represented by the word male child, for case, includes all the English words holding the two existent grammatical significances of ‘common instance ‘ and ‘singular figure ‘ ( miss, instructor, stat mi, etc. ) . The word book does non belong to this grammeme because it has merely one existent grammatical significance, that of ‘singular figure ‘ . The significance of ‘common instance ‘ is merely possible or oblique. So book represents another noun grammeme. The word England represents a different grammeme with the existent grammatical significance of ‘common instance ‘ ( californium. England ‘s ) and the oblique grammatical significance of ‘singular figure ‘ .

If we assume that each grammatical significance can be existent and oblique, there are four grammatical significances of ‘number ‘ , and they can be combined with four ‘case ‘ significances each, to represent 16 grammemes. In world, nevertheless, the ‘possessive instance ‘ significance can non be oblique in English, i. e. there are no words with the signifier and combinability of a ‘possessive instance ‘ member of a instance opposeme that have no ‘common instance ‘ antonyms. Nouns like St. Paul ‘s, the baker ‘s, denoting topographic points, have surely no antonyms with the same lexical significance and the ‘common instance ‘ signifier, but their distribution resembles instead the distribution of ‘common instance ‘ nouns ( californium. at the baker ‘s, from the baker ‘s and at the store, from & # 1048 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1077 ; store ) . If, nevertheless, we regard them as representing a separate grammeme with the oblique significances of ‘singular figure ‘ and ‘possessive instance ‘ , we may talk of 13 noun grammemes in English. In the table1 ( appendix ) they are represented by one word each.

The frequence of the happening of different grammemes in address [ 28 ]
is different. We have analysed several texts incorporating a sum of 6,000 nouns and counted the happening of each grammeme. In the tabular array 2 ( Appendix ) we give the consequences.

When analyzing an opposeme of any class, we regard the grammatical significances of its members as simple, indivisible and unchangeable, determined merely by the contrast with the opposite significances. But in address words are contrasted with other words non paradigmatically, in opposemes, but syntagmatically, in word-combinations. Depending on these combinations, grammatical significances may change well.

We must besides take into consideration that individual grammatical significances may happen in address merely in instance a word has but one such significance. Otherwise all the grammatical significances of a word spell in a bunch feature of the grammeme to which the word belongs. So if we want to see the different shades a given grammatical significance may get in address, we are to analyze in a text the words of different grammemes incorporating that intending. If, for case, the fluctuation of the ‘singular ‘ significance is to be investigated we are to analyze the grammemes represented by the words male child, male child ‘s, England, England ‘s, book, milk, St. Paul ‘s. We shall name them ‘singular ‘ grammemes for short.

The representatives of ‘singular ‘ grammemes constitute the majority of nouns found in an English text ( more than 70 per cent of the entire figure ) . Following is a brief sum-up of what a ‘singular ‘ noun may denote in address.

1. One object. The plane struck a sea gull. ( Daily Worker ) .

2. A alone object. Shakespeare ‘s name will populate everlastingly. ( Ib. ) .

3. A whole category of objects. The English gentleman is dead. ( Walpole ) .

In this sense ‘singularity ‘ gets really close to ‘plurality ‘ . So close so, that sometimes ‘singular ‘ and ‘plural ‘ nouns are really interchangeable.

Cf. The polar bear lives in Thursday & # 1077 ; North.

Polar bears live in the North.

Here as elsewhere extremes meet.

4. A ‘singular ‘ corporate noun stands for a group of existences or things viewed as an incorporate whole, e. g. peasantry, humanity, world.

5. A ‘singular ‘ abstract or material noun may demo some abstract construct or substance which is non associated with any thought of uniqueness.

I have accepted with tolerance the established conventions of sentence structure. ( Vallins ) .

Nouns stand foring ‘plural ‘ grammemes may denote:

1. Two or more homogenous objects.

Molly was really proud to be able to make up one’s mind such inquiries. ( Steinbeck ) .

2. A whole category of objects.

The Hindus and the Muslims liked and trusted him. ( Maugham ) .

Foreigners on the whole were really unsafe people. ( Ib ) .

3. A figure of objects similar, though non indistinguishable ( the plural of estimate ) .

A adult female in her late mid-thirtiess.

4. Individual objects.

His pants looked shabby.

5. A mass of some substance.

A king of beasts does non populate on departures. ( Maxwell ) .

6. Boundless extension or repeat. The use is aimed at bring forthing a stylistic consequence.

The tin & # 1086 ; tungsten of the Polar Region. The Waterss of the Danube.

Nouns stand foring ‘common instance ‘ grammemes express a broad scope of significances, the thorough scrutiny of which is barely executable. Here are some of them.

1. A actor of an action or the bearer of some belongings.

The immature worker challenged the Prime Minister to travel and run into Britain ‘s idle immature people. ( Daily Worker ) .

2. A receiver of some action.

He wanted to use the axi & # 1086 ; ims of arithmetic. ( Whittaker ) .

3. The individual ( or thing ) for whom something is done.

He gave M a R & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; clip to alter her head. ( Daily Worker ) .

4. An instrument. When so used, the ‘common instance ‘ noun is largely associated with a preposition,

e. g. to cut with a knife.

5. Fortunes of different events. When so used, the ‘common instance ‘ noun is largely introduced by a preposition.

Time: Every Saturday dark she bought a articulation of meat. ( Coppard ) .

Topographic point: I arrived at P a R K Lane. ( Wilde ) .

Manner: Everything went off without a hit & # 1089 ; h. ( Hornby ) , etc.

6. A belongings or feature of some substance.

The house commission was ready to move. ( Daily Worker ) .

7. A individual or thing as an object of comparing.

That monster of a Canis familiaris.

As we have seen, ‘possessive instance ‘ nouns occur a great trade less often than their antonyms [ 29 ]
.

The scope of significance of the genitive instance is uncomparably narrower than that of the common instance. Yet linguists point out a figure of significances a ‘possessive instance ‘ noun may show in address [ 30 ]
.

a ) ownership, belonging ( Peter ‘s bike )

B ) personal or societal dealingss ( Peter ‘s married woman )

degree Celsius ) writing ( Peter ‘s verse form )

vitamin D ) beginning or beginning ( the Sun ‘s beams )

vitamin E ) sort or species ( ladies ‘ chapeaus )

degree Fahrenheit ) the relation of the whole to its portion ( Peter ‘s manus )

g ) subjective dealingss ( Peter ‘s reaching )

H ) aim dealingss ( Peter ‘s being sent )

I ) feature ( her female parent ‘s attention ) , ( instead rare )

J ) step ( a dark ‘s contemplation ; a stat mi ‘s distance ) .

Sometimes the dealingss of a ‘possessive instance ‘ noun are equivocal. The relation in her girl ‘s loss may be interpreted either as subjective or as nonsubjective. This can be accounted for by the fact that her girl ‘s loss may be regarded as a transmutation ( or a transform ) of two different sentences.

Her girl lost == girl & # 8217 ; s loss

Her girl was lost == girl & # 8217 ; s loss

In other words, holding no voice differentiations, the noun loss may match to both the active and the inactive voice of the verb.

Since both ‘possessive instance ‘ and ‘common instance ‘ nouns may hold right-hand connexions with other nouns, it is interesting to see the difference between the two combinations in address. This is what W. N. Francis writes on the topic [ 31 ]
: “ Nouns make up a considerable figure ( every bit many as 25 per sent ) of the single-word qualifiers of nouns

Possessive Noun-adjunct

kid ‘s drama kid psychological science

a Canis familiaris ‘s life the Canis familiaris yearss

a twenty-four hours ‘s work the twenty-four hours displacement ‘

my male parent ‘s house a male parent image

that adult female ‘s physician that adult female physician

The last brace illustrates vividly the difference in intending there may be between these two constructions of alteration. The formal difference between them may be described as follows: a building with of may be substituted for the genitive building, and the clincher [ 32 ]
( if there is one ) will so travel with the modifying noun ; on the other manus, some other sort of building must be substituted for the noun-adjunct, and the clincher goes with the caput noun. In the undermentioned illustrations the symbol & gt ; means “ transforms into ”

My male parent ‘s house & gt ; house of my male parent

that father image & gt ; that image like ( a ) male parent

that adult female ‘s physician & gt ; physician of that adult female

that adult female physician & gt ; that physician who is a adult female.

As we see, the dealingss expressed by a ‘possessive instance ‘ noun can normally be rendered by its ‘common instance ‘ face-to-face preceded by of ( the alleged ‘of-phrase ‘ ) . The ‘possessive instance ‘ noun and the corresponding of-phrase are synonymous, but to a certain extent merely.

Unlike the genitive instance, the o/-phrase is freely used with all nouns irrespective of their lexical significances. Its scope of significance is much wider than that of the genitive instance. Thus, besides the ‘possessive instance ‘ dealingss already mentioned it may demo the dealingss of assessment ( a adult male of strong will ) , of stuff ( a tabular array of oak ) , of composing ( a group of kids ) , etc.

The of-phrase is believed to sound more formal than the genitive instance. In formal manner it is more common than the genitive.

E. g. Head of a miss ( in a image or sculpture exhibition programme ) , non a miss ‘s caput.

In the Russian linguistic communication a noun in the possessive instance may be adnominal and adverbial, i.e. it can be attached to a noun and to a verb.

E.g. & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; .

The genitive instance is practically adnominal, as in Tom ‘s going.

In sentences like The thought is George ‘s, where George ‘s is non followed by a noun, it is sometimes called the ‘independent genitive ‘ . But in world it is non independent, as it refers to some noun, normally mentioned antecedently ( the word thought in the sentence above ) . Therefore such genitives are called ‘anaphorical ‘ . But this term would be misapplied in instances like George ‘s was a superb thought, where the noun thought follows the genitive.

Sing that there is exact correspondence with the usage of the alleged absolute genitive pronouns ( The thought is mine. Mine was a superb thought ) , we shall name such genitives absolute.

In Modern English there exists a curious building which is a combination of the genitive instance and the of-phrase. The building makes it possible to put an article, a demonstrative pronoun, etc. before the modified noun. Cf. John ‘s friend and a ( the, that ) friend of John ‘s. The genitive instance in the building is absolute. Cf. a ( the, that ) friend of yours.

The building normally has a partitive significance. A friend of Mary ‘s & # 8212 ; one of Mary ‘s friends. It may besides be used for stylistic intents largely with dry coloring. That long nose of John ‘s.

In instances like I dined at my aunt ‘s or a garden party at Brown ‘s the genitive instance is truly independent. It does non mention to any other noun, and does non match to an absolute genitive pronoun. The significance of the independent genitive is that of vicinity. It denotes the house, store, cathedral, topographic point of concern, etc. of the individual denoted by the noun. E. g. the baker ‘s, draper ‘s, horologist ‘s, etc. , besides St. Paul ‘s.

2.3.2 The usage of Articles with Nouns in Some Set Expessions

a ) The usage of indefinite article with nouns in some set looks. [ 33 ]

1. in a haste & # 8212 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1093 ;

Thingss done in a haste are done severely.

2. tohaveamindtodosomething ( agreatmind, agoodmind ) & # 8212 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; – & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; – & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ;

I have a great head to hold a serious talk with her.

3. to wing into a passion & # 8212 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ;

If you contradict him, he will wing into a passion.

4. to acquire in a rage ( in a fury ) & # 8212 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ;

If you contradict him, he will acquire in a rage ( in a fury ) .

5. to take a illusion to ( chiefly with names of life existences ) & # 8212 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1091 ; & # 109