The Shirvan National Park is situated in the Kura-Araz lowland in the Caspian Sea seashore, embracing semi-desert and steppe type of landscapes. Main intent in the making of Shirvan National Park is the protection of one of the last leftover Gazelle populations in Azerbaijan every bit good as nesting and wintering site chiefly of water bird.
National Park was established on the parts of Shirvan Nature Reserve and Bandovan State Game Reserve. For the present clip district of Shirvan National Park peers to 54373.5 hectares. 14231 hectares are presented for Tourism and Recreation activities, what composes big plenty country.
Shirvan National Park was founded in 2003 as one of the first national Parkss of Azerbaijan Republic. The district of National Park peers to 54A 500 hectares. Merely 14A 000 hectares are presented for touristry intents by jurisprudence. The ground for making the park was the protection of largest staying population of Gazelle at the border of Europe. Large Fieldss of sandy knolls non merely provide shelter for gazelles` offspring in late May, but besides host Golden Jackals and Wolfs. Firsts are normally easy to be seen, unlike the Golden Jackals and Wolfs.
Herd of gazelles catching the auto at breakneck velocity, the dramatic take-off of 500 flamingos or the threaten hushing of the deadly Levantine Viper are witnessing.
The park`s landscapes consist of wetlands, coastal, lagunas, saline semi-desert, wood and little unreal lake. The diverseness of the landscapes gives the chances for the genteelness of such species as Stone Curlew, Scops Owl, Lesser Kestrel, Roller and black-bellied sand Grouse. Steppe Eagles and flocks of 10 1000s of small Bustards pass each winter in the park. The wetlands and the coastal line are being habit by species of waders, ducks, chumps and Heros.
Weather alter influences on the winter touristry concern
Mountains are quiet antiphonal and dependent to temperature and changes in the ambiance. Repercussions in mean temperature fluctuation can be easy distinguished, for case, in a decreased sum of blizzard, retreating ice-stream, liquefying for good frozen evidences and auxiliary enormous proceedings in the vena of landslide. Additionally, mean distinction is traveling to relocate flora and carnal life in all topographic points with white evidences. Subsequent tidy influences most likely is traveling to take topographic point in cragged cultivation, aggregate hotel or resorts, that are largely near a watering place, offering installations for winter touristry.
It should be accentuated that one of legion grounds impacting snow orientated activities every bit good as winter touristry, is atmosphere. A lesser sum of bustle intimidates the wintry conditions leisure activity concern in peak finishs. Fine blizzard fortunes are a must, even though it is non the merely stipulation for an economically practical winter touristry funicular corporation. Not including an equal sum of snowfall, conversely, money-spinning winter touristry is traveling barely be assuring. Cragged countries missing snowstorm are reminiscent of garden without trees. With the exclusion of incorporating satisfactory snow in accurate clip, is besides prevailing for the continuance of the vacations in the winter clip an of import place is taken by clime alteration.
Climate impact survey on the winter touristry industry has been conducted in different states such as New Zealand, the U.S.A. , Australia, France, Austria, Switzerland and the U.K. In instance if the clime alteration will happen, all these surveies are proof terrible deductions for the winter touristry industry. While some parts still may be able to prolong their winter touristry with suited version schemes like unreal snowmaking for illustration, others would lose their winter touristry concern due to a decreasing snow battalion. Average temperature all over the universe has increased by 0.6 – 1A°C over the last 100 old ages. Global temperature continues increasing. The terminal of the 1890ss was the warmest over the last centuries. Of class, there are a batch of uncertainties and the scope of scenarios of the hereafter heating is rather large. However, IPCC estimates a temperature addition of 1.4 to 5.8A° until 2100.
Climate alteration withstands winter touristry
The impact of clime alteration on natural environment affects the touristry industry. This could ensue in socio-economic impacts in parts with high dependence on touristry as the beginning of income and employment. Climate alteration will act upon costs on the touristry industry internationally. This is in portion due to touristry ‘s dependance on the built environment and natural assets, both of which are defenceless to the physical impacts of clime alteration. However, the impacts of these costs will besides flux through in the signifier of fiscal hazards with lifting insurance premiums, alterations to concern funding and the demand for concern to pull off the possible hazards of clime alteration traveling frontward as a portion of their concern theoretical account.
Consumer demand may besides be affected by grasp of clime alteration. The cardinal point is that clime alteration will act upon costs on the touristry industry. Policy responses are being designed to pull off those costs while reacting to the challenges of clime alteration. Changing client grasp related to clime alterations has the possible to impact the finish pick of travelers. There is a demand to detect altering client perceptual experiences and behaviors in relation to climate alterations and to shift universe touristry selling schemes to run into chances presented by clime alterations.
Some actions will be required to cover with the ineluctable impacts of clime alterations. Here are some version schemes: seting economic activity, cut downing exposure and bettering concern and investing certainty. The undermentioned challenges will be responded: increasing costs associated with the execution of climate alteration policy steps, physical impacts and associated economic cost and altering consumer perceptual experiences and buying behaviors associating to climate alteration.
The program will pass on the hazards and chances of clime alterations to the touristry market, supply tour-operators with the tools and information required to minimise their C footmark. Furthermore, explicate the work on exposure appraisal and version, explain the turning consciousness among clients of climate alteration issues and associated selling chances. In another words, to fix the touristry industry for a C constrained hereafter, the concern instance for action will be communicated, including information on emanations control and entree to emissions direction service suppliers.
Gazelles in Shirvan NP
Unfortunately, today gazelles are an nonextant type of animate beings in Europe. Initially the principal cause for making Shirvan NP was saving of gazelle population.
Till the terminal of the 1950ss of 20-th century, the gazelle population all over Azerbaijan reached 100A 000. The research and computations made after 1960ss, show the sharpest population lessening from 100A 000 to 131 all over Azerbaijan. 77 of them were habiting the Bandovan hill which situates near the NP. In 1961 it was decided to make Bandovan Wildlife Sanctuary. As the population of gazelles grow, the bigger districts were needed for them. All these facts brought to the constitution of Shirvan National Park in 2003.
Eden for birds
Shirvan NP`s birdlife is diverse, owing to the broad assortment of home grounds that include a little wood, a big wetland composite, broad unfastened semi-desert and the coastline. For case, merely come ining the park such species as Black Francolin, Menetries`s and Olivaceus Warblers could be observed. Traveling to the forest Syrian Woodpeckers and Long-eared Owls are easy seen. In winters Red-fronted Serins are abundant here.
Many species occur on the unnaturally created “ Flamingo Lake ” throughout the twelvemonth. Here are the names of some of them: White headed Duck, Marbled Teal, Ferruginous Duck, Flamingos, Dalmatian Pelican, etc. Walking around the petro glyphs, Rock Sparrow, Chough, Long-legged Buzzard and different wheatears species could be encountered. Greater Sand Plovers breed and occur around the shore in the summer. Significant sums of finches, larks and buntings gather in big flocks in huge field of the park in winters.
The trip to Shirvan NP takes about hr and half by coach from Baku. Unfortunately, there are no direct routes to the park, but the coachs traveling to the closer topographic points leave Baku instead frequent. The monetary value for the ticket is non so high, so the journey to Shirvan NP is rather approachable. Buss are go forthing about each two hours every twenty-four hours. The cab is an alternate manner for accomplishing the park. Choosing Salyan metropolis as the closer finish would be cheaper. Payment system is pay per place. The building of international haven in Alat might convey another option of the sea coach from Baku in the hereafter.
The chief entryway of Shirvan NP is on the chief main road taking to the Southern parts of Azerbaijan, so it could be easy noticed. Large Gatess and a pylon topped by a gazelle on the left, tag the entryway to the National Park.
Significant portion of Shirvan NP was used as the military preparation country in the past by former Soviet Union ground forces. The inactive military base is still situates in the South-Eastern portion of National Park. Numerous bomb craters indicate that the country was used for proving by aeroplanes or from ships. Considerable sums of as exploded, so undischarged ammo, old equipment, every bit good as ruins from edifices and an observation tower, could be found on that district. It is instead common phenomenon in Azerbaijan that the former SSR ground forces has left many military installings, which were partly or inadequately dismantled after the ground forces withdrew in 1991.
Many instances show that perturbation by military preparation ever had the negative impacts on wetland ecosystems, particularly on fen. The munition represents a menace to ecosystems because it can foul dirts and watercourses. Unexploded munition is the job of wellness significance, as it does non let for safe touristry, research and monitoring in the country concerned. Unfortunately, the exact contaminated country is unknown. So far, no steps have been taken to unclutter the country from munition.
In some topographic points in the universe, finishs of this type are designated as protected countries ; e.g. Presidio of San Francisco, White Sands NP, etc. These sites are valuable because they refuge many species. For case, the inactive military base in Germany ; Hainich NP`s district base on ballss through the largest country of deciduous woods of Europe. Hainich offers home grounds for a huge scope of wildlife, endangered and highly specialized species such as the Bechstein`s chiropteran. Similar to these illustrations Shirvan NP munition and military preparation in NP`s district are likely besides to hold some positive effects on biodiversity preservation. Furthermore, the happening of undischarged ammo may maintain shepherds outside the country, which reduces the graze force per unit area. Besides human perturbation by tourers and research workers will be limited in the country concerned.
SUSTAINABILITY OF SHIRVAN NP
Azerbaijan Republic gained its freedom and independence 20 old ages ago. For the short period of clip Azerbaijan developed rather adequate comparison with other CIS states. Shirvan NP is one of the first national Parkss on the district of Azerbaijan and for today is the most developed one among other Parkss. As the tourer attractive force, country has the great chances. It was counted that more than 3500 different sorts of animate beings habit the district of NP.
Sustainable touristry implies a balance between touristry and other bing possible activities in the involvement of, multi-sectorial sustainable development. While sustainability is integrative construct, most readings recognize, in the chief, the environmental and socioeconomic dimensions. Compatible human usage of environments and resource direction patterns that minimize human perturbation of ecosystems and avoid actions with irreversible effects, are frequently overlooked. Tourism can go on to spread out globally in maintaining with environmental restraints, given a committedness by all stakeholders to guaranting balance and sustainable touristry.
Numerous bird species are coming here to winter. Rare sorts of birds are easy seen in the country all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. Breeding conditions are pleasant ; it could be proved on the illustration of gazelle population. The gazelles were the major ground of establishing the park, now the figure of them reaches 9000.
Being of military polygon on the district of National Park in the yesteryear may be one more chance for being it sustainable. One beautiful fable could be composed for it and presented to the tourers sing the finish.
Coastal line of 21 kilometer is one more opportunity for sustainability of the park. Some portion of the coastal line could be used as the beach side in the hereafter. The finish could go the lovely topographic point for alien lovers. Swim in the sea and watch the birds` laguna from the beach lying on the sand could be best.
From the theoretical point of position Shirvan NP has huge touristry chances ; nevertheless they have non been implemented yet so far. In order to do Shirvan NP sustainable touristry finish some actions needed to be taken into consideration.
Pull and push factors
From different facets of pull and push factors, the subjacent characteristic of visitants ‘ motivations to Shirvan NP are analysed. As a consequence, one push factor and two chief pull factors are being observed. Further analyses detect differences in the push and pull factors among assorted socio-demographic subgroups. The consequence of the survey affords the utile mentions for protection, development and selling enlargement of national park.
Birds as the pull factor
Pull factors make the elements that impel people to go. Pull factors are largely considered attractive forces that can be divided into two groups: tangibles and intangibles. Tangibles could be Gazelles, substructure, legion birds, and coastal line ; intangibles – are service quality, community, safety and security. Harmonizing to Cooper ( 1998 pg.5 ) , these pull factors are referred to as the touristry supply for the touristry finish.
Shirvan NP is the topographic point of resting and engendering for about 150A 000 – 200A 000 birds a twelvemonth. More than 230 vulnerable endangered and near threatened species of birds could be observed here within the twelvemonth, particularly in fall and winters.
Most of the visitants coming to the park today are the birdwatchers from all over the universe. The fact that the district of the park is the topographic point where more than 200 species of birds could be seen is the chief pulling force for them.
Gazelles as the pull factor
Gazelles on the district of National Park exist without any deductions of worlds. This could be direct pull factor for the visitants. There are 82 flora types on the district of the park. 47 of them are edible for gazelles. The interesting fact about gazelles is that it ne’er eats green works. It will wait until the works is mature. The other non less interesting fact is that gazelles habiting Shirvan imbibe the H2O from Caspian Sea, how unusual it would non sound. The instance is that from the north the H2O from Shirvan Collector influx into the Caspian Sea and from the south – Kura River. These influxs create changeless important volume of fresh H2O suitable for imbibing. These ideal conditions resulted in the figure of gazelle population for today in Shirvan National Park to about 9000.
About absence of any services as the push factor
About absence of adjustment installations is forcing visitants from the park. Shirvan NP can non afford hosting of more than six visitants per twenty-four hours. The park has merely six beds in whole. Two suites are really near to the park entryway and one room is on the picturesque topographic point on the shore of “ Flamingo Lake ” . Particularly the deficiency of adjustment installations closely concerns the birdwatchers.
Salyan metropolis is really celebrated for its fish. Willing to savor traditional nutrient of the part is usual for the tourers coming here. Inexistence of any catering supplies inside Shirvan NP is besides one of the chief forcing factors. About five eating houses are situated on the chief main road, five-six kilometers off from the park entryway, what is non so convenient. That is why the stay in Shirvan NP is non the long-lasting. Making the barbecue without any airing system, on the fresh air would pull animate beings and the holiday could go calamity.
These pull-push factors should be used as the chief tool to turn Shirvan NP into sustainable finish.
All tourers around the universe are concerned with the security inquiry. The serpents in Shirvan NP are the primary danger. The most dispersed 1s are H2O serpents, adders and blind serpents. Within the last old ages it is observed an addition in the figure of toxicant serpents. Trainings on the first assistance intervention should be provided for ushers and Texas Rangers of the park. First assistance kits should be carried by them for any instance.
Risk direction is really critical for forestalling dangers like Sun shots, snake bites, accidents in the sea, autos stuck in the clay, etc. Supplying the park with one ambulance auto would be good option. Furthermore, medical point has to be in topographic point. One particular room should be arranged for that ground ; medical specialty has to be stored decently in an appropriate temperature in the electric refrigerator. The electricity supply besides has to be changeless.
AATransportation usage inside NP
Unfortunately, there are no agencies of conveyance available for tourers inside of the park. Some Soviet reinforced vehicles can be rented for driving. However, the roads are in the bad status. It is recommended to supply robust quality for all roads and waies along the proposed paths to let unit of ammunition twelvemonth ecotourism in the Shirvan NP. Minimum two paths should be operated at the really get downing. Subsequently on harmonizing to demand coachs could run more often. There should be one usher for each coach and field glassess should be provided.
The thought of developing camel, Equus caballus and bike Tourss combines historical, ethnographical, economic and ecological factors. Functioning of camel-breeding and he-man farms inside the NP would be great for two intents ; utilizing them as the mean of conveyance and multiplying their figure, what in the hereafter might be used as an income beginning. Shorter paths will increase the opportunities of researching more. Due to take down costs immature visitants might be interested in bike Tourss.
Awareness of local communityAAAAAAA
The research in the transporting capacity of grazing lands around the NP should be conducted. Furthermore, developing in wildlife is important undertaking. Close communicating between disposal of Shirvan NP, local community and national universities should be set up. Presently the environmental consciousness is estimated as really low. Unfortunately, the capacities of basic educational installations are non used satisfactorily. This occurs chiefly because of the absence of staff trained in natural history of national park. It leads to the fortunes that presently, visitants are left with a little exhibition and gazelle observation Tourss without basic environmental instruction. There is a demand pressing demand for a construct for environmental instruction and visitant direction. First staff should be trained. There is the possibility of establishing an internship programme and some volunteering services for the pupils.
The factors like: low wages, deficiency of trained staff, graft every bit good as a general deficiency of fiscal resources for protected countries reduces their effectivity ( USAID ) . The frequence of directors` alteration in the Shirvan NP jeopardises long term determinations and direction continuity. The place needs to be taken by a individual with background in nature preservation who is willing and able to populate in the countryside for several old ages. The low wages of manager and Texas Rangers need to be raised as the tool of motive and bar of graft and accordingly poaching.
The realisation of the above recommendations on the zonation and direction of the protected country will be a long procedure and non possible without national and international support. However, the possible advantages of the Shirvan NP for beef uping both nature preservation and rural support, warrant greater concernment.
Shirvan NP from the TALC point of position
This theoretical account presents destination life rhythm. This theoretical account was generated by Butler in 1980 in order to specify life rhythm of any finish. Here are some issues done to place Shirvan National Park`s place today. It is proved to be valuable heuristic tool in understanding the development of tourer finish.
“ Gun triggers, factors which bring about alteration in the finish aˆ¦ were, possibly non given the focal point they might merit. ” ( Butler, 2006, p.164 )
In human footings life is normally perceived as a additive procedure – birth, babyhood, childhood, adolescence, maturity and finally decease. Nevertheless, redirection of development and unexpected results could be interposed by fortunes. Initially, theoretical account was showing the instance, where the tourer finishs could be expected to see a generic life rhythm, traveling through stairss and without any indispensable direction intercession, completing in diminution and forsaking. However, it attempted to incarnate both the demand and supply sides of the equation in the procedure of finish development and to convey together the elements of growing, alteration, bounds and intercession in touristry context.
Figure 1: TALC theoretical account
Harmonizing to Butler`s theoretical account about the touristry area`s life rhythm, Shirvan NP is in the development phase today. As it was mentioned above, the park has some installations, but it is non plenty to pull many visitants. The research shows that the being the Shirvan NP on this phase is advantageous, because in the hereafter the park`s stairss could be controlled. Following measure is consolidation what will beef up the park in all its waies e.g. installations, direction and services offered. Then, harmonizing to Butler`s theoretical account, comes stagnancy phase, where on the premises of the park`s state of affairs stairss for greening could be thought of. In this stage, life rhythm of touristry country can come up with one of these options: get downing once more, continue by implementing some minor alterations and readjustments, go a hard currency cow by uninterrupted overexploitation and stop up with the deficiency of visitants.
The thoughts of Butler`s theory of finish ‘s life rhythm could be associated with Plog`s theoretical account on finish development, which could be observed in the following chapter.
“ Allocentrism ” vs. “ psychocentrism ” continuum manner
allocentricsThe figure 2 is the Plog`s ( 1973 ) theoretical account which was developed specially for the North American market about 40 old ages ago. Harmonizing to the interviews conducted, the mid-centric psychographic group travels more to the Shirvan NP today.
Figure 2: “ Allocentrism ‘ and “ psychocentrism ” theoretical account for Shirvan NP
Initially, Plog conducted this research for concern clients of some air hose companies in the United States. The air hoses were funny about the apprehension of personality features of people. Making telephone interviews he was inquiring inquiries related to personality types and travel forms. Hence, Plog prescribed typologies of tourers runing on a continuum from what he designated “ psychocentrics ” to “ allocentrics ” . The features like being self-inhibited, nervous and non-adventuresome were found at “ psychocentric ” group of people, while “ allocentrics ” displayed features of being assortment seeking, adventuresome and confident people. The huge bulk of people belonged to the mid-centric group exposing some features of “ psychocentrics ” and “ allocentrics ” .
The figure above besides depicts the relationship between the type of traveler and development of finish in footings of its popularity. New finishs are more likely to be explored by “ allocentric ” group. Next, the oral cavity of word is making its occupation. The experience about the finish told to the friends. In the consequence, finish becomes frequented by “ near allocentric ” group. As the larger group visit the finish, it necessitates the direction to develop tourer installations such as hotels and eating houses. Because the degree of familiarity with the topographic point is increasing, it leads the development of finish into the mature phase. At his phase, harmonizing to Plog, the finish has reached its maximal possible because it is now pulling the broadest audience possible. The finish will go on to come on towards the “ psychocentric ” terminal of the continuum, thought Plog.
Harmonizing to the conducted research, today the visitants of Shirvan NP are people belonging to the “ near-allocentric ” group. The fact that the visitants of the park belong exactly to this group is really of import. The finish does non hold such installations, like hotel, eating house, and is non offering broad assortment of services but at the same clip there is an being of such services like steering in the park, auto rent, and representation of some dormant topographic points. If the figure of visitants would be controlled by the direction of the park, it could salvage its naturalness and verve. Execution of this action could salvage the park`s place at the same topographic point for a longer period of clip and by this “ close allocentric ” group of people will go on the visits.
Competitiveness and Sustainability of Shirvan NP
The first facet is competitiveness which is indispensable for any finish. In the instance of Shirvan NP it has many advantages among other national Parkss of Azerbaijan Republic. There are some factors that make finish to be competitory. J.R. Brent Ritchie and Geoffrey I. Crouch sort these factors in their research. Harmonizing their research fight is ability:
To progressively pull visitants
To increase touristry outgo
To supply visitants fulfilling, memorable experiences in a profitable manner
To heighten the wellbeing of finish occupants
While analyzing these factors it is easy to use abilities of fight to Shirvan NP as the finish. To maintain high fight it is critical to carry through these factors through good designed managerial construction. The fact that the close to endangered animate beings on the district of the park are being protected attracts people to the finish.
On the other manus sustainability of finish will be another facet that defines Shirvan as successful finish. From resource point of position it will be sustainable because of the historical background which is stiff and inflexible. This creates sustainability of finish and future chance. Sustainability of finish will increase visitants and develop ecological touristry invariably.
Stairss to destination success
It will be right to speak about sort of fight while placing competitory factors. Diversity of animate beings could be right issue. This characteristic to pull visitants is to specify sort of fight. If the sort of fight is sustainable plenty there will be issue to speak about future chance. Sing all these, it could be told about stairss to the finish success. There is another tabular array generated in 2003 by J.R. Brent Ritchie and Geoffrey I. Crouch that shows the indispensable stairss of finish to be successful.
Figure 3: Stairss to destination success
As the tabular array depicts, these stairss should be done one by one in order to catch the market. Unfortunately, the research shows that in the instance of Shirvan NP merely first measure is done. The manager of the park believes that twelvemonth by twelvemonth remainder stairss are done and in the hereafter immense figure of people will be sing the park with the intent of increasing their populace and ecological consciousness. All these cardinal elements lead to the high fight, sustainability of the finish and an addition in the figure of visitants.
RECOMMENDATIONS ON MANAGING SHIRVAN NP
4.1 The bounds of sustainability
Two distinguishable but potentially at odds ends are being described by legion world-wide sustainability attempts and motions:
Leaving equal resources and environmental quality for future coevalss
Supplying support to developing states to help them in making healthy economic systems that provide their population quality of life better than mere endurance
By facing the demands of nowadays and future coevalss it was examined whether natural system and resources can run into the enormous and complex demands of today. Not implementing rapid additions in efficiency of resources, important lessenings in waste and pollution end product and stabilisation of population, sustainable development will be merely glorious illusion.
Formation, intervention and disposal of waste stuffs and their resulting merchandises are chief constituents of waste direction. Resolution of root jobs with waste direction could be achieved through analyse of the full stuff flow across the board of human activities. Every influence impacting each stuff is isolated and analysed for each environment. Private families, industries or agencies of conveyance might be environments.
From a fiscal point of position waste consists of stuff and objects that have no economic value either at present or in the hereafter, because there is no demand for them in the market place. Waste storage typically accrues fiscal or other disadvantages to the proprietors.
The manager of the Shirvan NP suggests the coloring material cryptography system for pull offing the waste. A notices or sort of educational postings, both within the park district and at the entryway, should be placed, informing visitants that black bin is for metal and glass, and green one is for nutrient waste. Enforce right waste disposal by monitoring and fining people for wrong waste disposal. Besides it was mentioned that the waste collected and gathered from that bins should be recycled individually. Mentioning to the fact that Shirvan NP possesses a broad assortment of landscapes, the inquiry of use it by burying under the land, could be solved.
Bettering waste disposal direction in Shirvan NP will better the environment for both worlds and animate beings. Shirvan National Park is one of the most outstanding and well-respected National Parks is puting an illustration by implementing an ecologically friendly waste disposal direction policy. Execution of these recommendations will take to improved healthful conditions: cut downing impacts on wildlife and heightening the quality of the tourer experience. The entree to nutrient waste will be restricted for the animate beings. Shirvan NP will so be a more hygienic, healthy, and more aesthetically pleasing topographic point ; profiting the local population, touristry, wildlife, and the environment. Today`s waste is no longer a local job – it has now become planetary.
Share of socio-economic benefits with local community
The chief ends of Shirvan NP are environmental and biodiversity preservation. Nevertheless, societal and economic wellbeing of the people should besides be considered. One of the most interesting facets of ecological webs is that the programmes are being implemented worldwide in an exceptionally broad scope of socio-economic fortunes, from advanced industrialised states to some of the poorest parts.
Contribution to societal results such as local employment and preparation, important parts to local province authorities gross through park fees, important parts to local concerns and economic systems through touristry gross and park direction outgo could be created by Shirvan NP in the hereafter. The statement for using these programmes in developing states is that the sustainable usage of the landscape in combination with the care of ecosystem maps creates the long-run conditions that are necessary for the decrease of poorness through edifice sustainable supports. These root chiefly from high population densenesss in many countries and the resulting force per unit areas on natural resources, the developing institutional constructions, the trouble in set uping professional process-management models for the needfully complex execution programmes, procuring the support of local communities and equilibrating the demand for short-run pressing development steps with investings in accomplishing long-run sustainability aims. Different types of substructure should be developed. Some undertakings like non-capital intensive and sustainable developmental should be undertaken in the park. For doing income from touristry attractive for local community, the touristry domain of the local economic system should be developed.
The preservation of biological diverseness
Discrepancy of life on Earth makes the planet beautiful and habitable. Such things as nutrient, energy, natural stuffs, air and H2O make lives possible and economically stable. The, artistic inspiration, aesthetic pleasance and diversion factors are taken in history when think about the natural environment.
Biodiversity is one of the key footings in preservation. The Convention on Biological Diversity defines biological diverseness as:
“ variableness among populating beings from all beginnings including, inter alia, tellurian, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological composites of which they are portion ; this includes diverseness within species, between species and of ecosystems ” . ( Convention on Biological Diversity, 1993 )
Such issues like human health, the ecosystem long-period production capacity, natural resources direction, biodiversity and natural environment should be considered in the hereafter in order to do Shirvan NP biologically sustainable as a little piece of whole planet. Consideration of these issues would make chances for diversion of nature in a landscape where solicitousness of the natural environment goes jointly with attention of the cultural environment.
Particular Interest Tourism ( SIT )
“ Specialized touristry affecting group or single Tourss by people who wish to develop certain involvements and visit sites and topographic points connected with a specific topic. Generally speech production, the people concerned exercise the same profession or have a common avocation ” ( World Tourism Organization, 1985 )
There has been an tremendous growing in touristry since last six decennaries. As the consequence of industrial and technological development taking to growing in economic system, there is more disposable income available with big figure of people. Conditionss have been created for diversified touristry merchandise supplementing the traditional tourer merchandises. This variegation has resulted in hunt for newer avenues of touristry which are pulling more tourers and at the same clip lending significantly to the bing touristry activity. Particular Interest Tourism is the consequence of this new scenario and is likely to bring forth and provide to the tourer traffic that looks for merchandises other than the usual. This is likely to give a wholly different and new experience to the tourer. The touristry manner alterations rather frequently and so does the involvement of tourer. The range of particular involvement touristry is rather broad as it offers multiple chances. It besides encompasses diverse type of market sections and the touristry merchandises. The scope of SIT merchandises would be straight linked to the finish and to the geographical characteristics it holds.
In instance of proper development, Shirvan NP could offer three of five possible types of particular involvement touristry in the hereafter. Being of coastal line on the park`s district offers beach touristry. The fact that wolves, foxes, gazelles, serpents and legion varmint birds habiting the park, offers wildlife touristry development. The presentation in the hereafter of such services as Equus caballus, camel and bike drives could make all conditions for growing of athletics touristry. The most of import fact about SIT is that it provides the possibility of supplying a assortment of experiences at the same site or finish.
Community Based Tourism Approach ( CBT )
The community based touristry attack is influenced by two chief factors. It was generated that negative socio-cultural, economic and negative impacts on some members of finish communities were made by touristry development. In urban and regional planning it was realized that community stakeholders frequently needed to be involved in determination devising if planning intercessions were to be successful.
Subsequently on, A. Murphy ( Tourism: Community Approach, 1985 ) advocated the acceptance of an ecological attack to tourism be aftering that emphasized the demand for local control over the development procedure. Satisfying the local demands it is possible to fulfill the demands of tourers was the cardinal constituent of the attack. Despite the undoubted attractive force of “ win-win ” construct to many finishs, the attack was non adopted widely as it might hold been. This was because of some grounds. The attack was seen as being more clip consuming and expensive and it blotted where control ballad in a decision-making procedure. The attendant programs frequently did non run into the more economically oriented dockets of the touristry industry and authorities.
In malice of the fact that sometimes CBT doctrine is perceived as tokenism where audience occurs merely with industry stakeholders instead than the wider community, the attack will still hold influence on finish planning through promoting at least some grade of audience and public engagement in Shirvan NP`s planning. More late, this attack highlights the significance of authorization and equity issues as factors in touristry development which has been peculiarly of import to concept of pro-poor touristry. This latter dimension would be an country in which there has been overlap between the community and economic attacks. Interrelationships between the community and spacial attacks could be best seen in audience exercisings in the instance of usage natural countries every bit good as with regard to regional and local planning enterprises.
SWOT analysis is the generalisation of effects of influence on development of the administrations of those factors which have been revealed at the old phase. They are divided into four groups – strong and weak sides, chances and menaces. The consequence of SWOT conductivity is the sensing of most of import inquiries for the organisation, which should be considered instantly. Strategically of import facets of organization`s activity appear in the Centre of working out scheme. Deriving the consequences of state of affairs analysis and cognizing weak and strong sides, chances and menaces, the development of strategic program for each section of market, which company operates could be proceed. Sing these factors conductivity of SWOT analysis for Shirvan NP is critical.
Figure 4: Swot for Shirvan National Park
Harmonizing to the done research, Shirvan NP has every bit much strengths so failings, but it should be noticed that there are more weak sides than strong today. Sing other NPs of Azerbaijan, Shirvan has legion pulling factors. Most of the failings and chances could be converted into strengths in the hereafter if the park will be funded plenty. Menaces of the park could be avoided in the hereafter by implementing appropriate actions.
We can non ever acquire into wilderness countries – for assorted grounds some people may ne’er acquire at that place – but that does non decrease their importance. Simply cognizing that wilderness exists is possibly the most prevailing ground for support of these little pieces of the Earth, where we are willing to allow nature be to the full in control.