In the late eightiess, the increased concern for planetary environmental issues contributed to the outgrowth of involvement in sustainability, developing non merely in the touristry sector but besides all other sectors within economic system ( Archer and Cooper, 1994 ; Godfery, 1996, cited in Diamantis, 2004 ) . The demand for better spatial, environmental, and economic balance of touristry development is the construct of touristry sustainability, necessitating new integrative public-private attacks and policies in the hereafter ( Godrey, 1996 ; Coccossis, 1996 ; Manning and Dougherty, 1999, cited in Gunn, 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) the growing rate of touristry in Asia-Pacific is about twice that for the universe overall in 1996 ( Lew, 1998 ) . Lindberg ( 1991, cited in Wight, 1996 ) mentioned that the whole touristry industry growing 4 per centum every twelvemonth, nevertheless, the turning rate of nature-based touristry is between 10 to 30 % which could be seen as rapid turning market in touristry industry. Unfortunately, the enormous growing rate in Asia-Pacific industry have caused some negative impacts on the environment such as overcrowding at major attractive forces, environmental pollution and air traffic congestion restricted the development in this part ( Muqbil, 1996, cited in Lew, 1998 ) . The development and preservation of sensitive natural environment has become troubles for authorities to equilibrate both nature resource and the demand of the tourers.
Ecotourism is one of the methods to run into the end of developing the sustainability and minimising people-park struggle to supply benefit to local community and back up the preservation of environment ( Ormsby and Mannle, 2006 ) . The outgrowth of the ecotourism into the public consciousness have begun from late 1980s and go an of import phenomenon in the 1990s to react to the sustainable patterns and planetary ecological patterns ( Wearing and Neil, 2003 ; Diamantis, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Wight ( 1996 ) , ecotourism is one of the fastest-growing markets in touristry industry, there are more and more people interested in the touristry merchandise which is environmental sensitive or good. Tao et Al. ( 2004 ) besides argue that the growing of ecotourism is because of turning concern over the negative impacts of uncontrolled touristry development and people increased the involvement in nature and natural environment.
TIES ( 2006 ) states that in 2004, ecotourism was turning globally three times faster than the whole touristry industry. In order to react to UN ‘s declaration of 2002 as World Ecotourism Year, some of the Chinese societal organisation began to advance different ecotourism activities. The Chinese authorities besides invested around US $ 880,000 dollars to advance ecotourism in Taiwan ( Tourism Bureau, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Tourism Bureau ( 2005 ) , 49.5 per cent Chinese people like natural scenery and out-of-door activities, and among the top 10 touristry attractive forces eight of them are either national Parkss or public protected countries. It shows that the domestic ecotourism market in Taiwan has grown particularly in Kenting National Park. Since 1998 to 2005, Kenting National Park is the most popular national park in Taiwan ( Tourism Bureau, 1998-2005 ) .
Given this rapid turning rate of ecotourism, it is necessary for authorities or private operators to properly operate and pull off the finishs in order to equilibrate both the demands of touristry development and the preservation of the natural environment. Higgins ( 1996, cited in Wurzinger and Johansson, 2006 ) points out that in order to do the selling and be aftering more efficient, it is necessary to hold a deeper apprehension of ecotourists ‘ environmental attitude. Therefore, understanding the demands and environmental attitude of tourers who travel in the protected country can assist the authorities to develop and better the direction and selling schemes. Furthermore, the authorities can besides set up a better interaction with local community, tourers and nature environment.
However, Sirayaka et Al. ( 1999 ) argue that ecotourism research so far tended to be descriptive types of surveies which are more theory-based. Furthermore, some of the research workers ( Holden and Sparrowhawk, 2002 ; Meric and Hunt, 1998 ; Wight, 1996, cited in Wurzinger and Johansson, 2006 ) argue that there are few of the published surveies of ecotourists which is emphasized on the demographics and incentives of the ecotourists. Tao et Al. ( 2004 ) besides province that several research workers have profiled North American Ecotourists ( Wight, 1996 ) , but small research has been published on Asiatic ecotourism market to understand the features and travel motivations in that part peculiarly of domestic ecotourists. Indeed, the research of ecotourism in Taiwan tends to be more concentrated on environmental protection and preservation, and rarely about the motivations of the ecotourism and their environmental attitude.
This research of ecotourism in Kenting National Park explores the environmental attitude and the penetration into travel motive of ecotourists in Taiwan in order to supply a theoretical account to Chinese authorities to develop a better scheme and program to pull off the populace protected country to accomplish the end of sustainable touristry development.
1.2 Research Aims
The purpose of this research survey was to research the motive of Chinese ecotourists in public protected countries to supply a theoretical account to the authorities and private ecotourism operators to sustainable development. This thesis pursues three related aims as below:
( 1 ) to critically reexamine the relationship between sustainable development and ecotourism.
( 2 ) to analyse the travel motives and penchant of ecotourists in Taiwan Kenting National Park.
( 3 ) to develop a theoretical account to function as the footing for the authorities and private ecotourism operators to develop the selling schemes.
1.3 Dissertation overview
Since ecotourism in Taiwan tends to be a fast turning market and most of the old research tends to be theory-based instead than stress on ecotourists ‘ incentives and demographics properties. Furthermore, there is small research that focuses on the Asiatic market, and most of the research concerns with ecotourism concentrated in North American ecotourism market, therefore exemplifying a spread in the literature. Therefore, the research worker lists three aims for this research in order to turn to this.
Chapter 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Francis ( 1998, cited in Carson et al. , 2001:40 ) provinces that “ it is of import to utilize appropriate literature to warrant the research jobs at an early phase. ” In this portion of literature reappraisal, the writer explains the cardinal issues associating with the ecotourism and their motives, therefore developing the foundation of this research to detect something new and alone. On the other manus, due to a deficiency of consensus with respect to definition of ecotourist and ecotourism, the undermentioned subdivision presents the definition which the writer idea is the most properly and consist with this research. In the following subdivision, foremost the writer examines the construct of sustainable touristry and in subdivision 2.3 discusses about the beginning and construct of ecotourism and ecotourists. In subdivision 2.4 to subdivision 2.6 the writer concerns more about the ecotourism market in Taiwan and Earth. In subdivision 2.7 focal points on the motive to force and draw the ecotourists participate in ecotourism activities.
2.2 Sustainable development of touristry
Harmonizing to Liu ( 2003 ) , the construct of environmental sustainability originated in the seventiess. In 1972 the Club of Rome released a study entitled “ The Limits to Growth ” which provided an thought that differentiated with the traditional manner of thought that the limitless resource providing by natural environment may be used up because of the unchained population growing and industrial enlargement ( Dieren, 1995 ) . In 1987, the Brundtland Commission Report defined sustainable development as meeting “ the demand of the present without compromising the ability of the future coevalss to run into their ain demand ” ( WCED, 1987 ) . Basically, as stated by Eber ( 1992 ; cited in Weaver, 2006:10 ) sustainable development “ advocates the wise usage and preservation of resources in order to keep their long term viability ” . However, the Brundtland Commission Report made no reference about touristry and the Agenda 21 scheme papers from the seminal Rio Summit in 1992 besides made small mention to touristry ( Weaver, 2006 ) .
The outgrowth of the sustainable touristry began in the early 1990s and the obvious development was the publication of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism in 1993 ( Weaver, 2006 ) . Nevertheless, Hardy et Al. ( 2002 ) argue that the construct of sustainable touristry in the literature existed before the term sustainable development officially used. No affair which one emerged foremost, sing touristry industry is one of the fastest turning markets and due to the resource of Earth being limited the construct of the sustainable touristry has become more and more of import.
Harmonizing to Middleton and Hawkins ( 2002 ) , in the heavy industrial epoch touristry is non a smokestack industry, therefore it does non bring forth pollution as other industries. However, it has many critics such as British Broadcasting Corporation who argues that touristry is the primary cause of environmental pollution. Indeed, our natural environment such as beaches, woods and lakes become contaminated because of tourism-related building, waste coevals and visitant activity ; for illustration the US beach resort of Atlantic metropolis suffered the declined of the tourer ( Weaver, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Hardy et Al. ( 2002 ) the construct of the sustainable development includes both economic development and environmentalism. Weaver ( 2006 ) besides mentioned that any sort of touristry may do some impacts but sustainable touristry is to minimise the negative impacts and maximise the positive impacts. Harmonizing to Newsome et Al. ( 2002 ) , sustainable touristry should include three facets: economic, societal and environmental.
In all types of touristry activities ecotourism could be seen as a portion of construct of sustainable touristry ( Diamantis, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Weaver ( 2002 ) ecotourism is a kind of alternate touristry. Alternate touristry is a signifier of sustainable touristry that differs to a conventional mass touristry which is regarded as being unsustainable. Fennell ( 1999, cited in Newsome et al. , 2002:12 ) defines that ‘ecotourism as affecting a type of touristry that is less socio-cultural in its orientation, and more dependent upon nature and natural resources as primary constituent or incentive of the trip ‘ . Clarke ( 2002:235 ) argues that ecotourism and sustainability are non inter-changeable footings. He besides asserted that ‘the purest signifier of ecotourism seeks sustainability, but non all sustainable touristry is ecotourism ‘ .
However, Wall ( 1997 ) , argues that ecotourism can be seen as a selling catch by the touristry industry to advance a clean and green image. Wheeller ( 1993 ) , Maclellan ( 1997 ) and Mowforth and Munt ( 1998, cited in Weaver, 2006 ) , besides refer that some of the concerns and authoritiess provide a incorrect feeling of environmental and societal duty to the populace by utilizing ecotourism in their selling as a signifier of greenwashing. They maintain that necessarily ecotourism is used to be the selling cant, because sustainability is non merely about sustainable of societal, environmental and economic. Therefore the economic sustainability of a finish or a merchandise is besides a important component to accomplish the end of sustainability in general. McKercher ( 2001 ; cited in Weaver 2002 ) notes that most of the ecotourism operations and finishs must run into the fiscal sustainability in order to last and at the same time run intoing the other standard is another challenge.
There are some differences about whether ecotourism is sustainable or non. Since there are many definitions of ecotourism and some of them are equivocal, it is hard to give an absolute significance of ecotourism ( Kristages, 2002 ) . Furthermore, as stated by Weaver ( 2001 ) , the stances people take may besides change, some people may believe more in biocentricity and some may emphasize an anthropocentric point of position. From the biocentrism ‘s point of position, all elements of the biosphere have equal value. They contend that one coevals should go forth the same or larger natural assets to the following coevals. On the other manus, those who believe in the construct of anthropocentric would accept that human capital can be substituted for natural capital. Therefore, it is impossible to utilize a standardised standard to entree whether a peculiar ecotourism activity or operation is environmentally or socio-culturally sustainable. In the following subdivision the writer will discourse more about the ecotourism and ecotourists, and take a definition of ecotourism and ecotourists which is most appropriate for this research.
2.3.1. The beginning and construct of ecotourism
The term ‘ecotourism ‘ emerged in the English literature in 1985 ( Romeril, 1985 ; cited in Weaver, 2002 ) . It has become known in the late eightiess because of the universe ‘s reaction to the sustainability of planetary ecological patterns ( Diamantis, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Silva and McDill ( 2004 ) through the increased consciousness of nature and direct preservation attempts of ecotourism concern, ecotourism can advance the preservation of nature resources to the local country. As celebrated before, the deficiency of a cosmopolitan definition of ecotourism consequences in multiple readings. The construct of ecotourism has remained controversial and elusive. Furthermore, the extent of ecotourism is excessively wide that it is excessively difficult to state what is ecotourism in the current literature. To take the definition of the International Ecotourism Society, ecotourism is ‘responsible travel to natural countries that conserves the environment and improves the wellbeing of local people ‘ ( TIES, 1990 ) . Another definition of ecotourism is by Butler ( 1989:9-17, cited in Sirakaya et al. , 1999:169 ) :
“ Ecotourism can be described as the type of touristry that is inherently sensitive to communicating, consciousness and environmental sweetening. These features of ecotourism make it less likely to make societal and environmental jobs normally associated with conventional touristry. Ecotourism efforts to give travellers a greater consciousness of environmental systems and lend positively to the finish ‘s economic, societal and ecological conditions. ”
In this survey the writer adopts the definition of ecotourism from Butler because he focuses on the three facets of a finish and non merely emphasizes the environmental or socio-cultural concerns. The constitution of Kenting National Park is based on conserving the natural environment, wildlife and historical musca volitanss in order to supply a topographic point for people to animate and advance the attitude of environmental preservation. Furthermore, in this survey the writer aims to look into the profile of Chinese ecotourists in order to develop the selling schemes for the authorities. Wight ( 2001 ) argues that ecotourists tend to pass more capita on their trip than the mean tourers. Therefore, ecotourism is regarded as a moneymaking industry and it is appropriate for some country where is non suite for pulling unsustainable economic activity. Silva and Mcdill ( 2004 ) besides maintain that ecotourism creates the economic involvement to supply inducements for conserving nature resources.
Mader ( 2002 ) states that most signifiers of the ecotourism meet three standards ( 1 ) it provides for preservation steps ; ( 2 ) it includes meaningful community engagement ; ( 3 ) it is profitable and can prolong itself. Harmonizing to Weaver ( 2001 ) ecotourism is frequently assumed to be a subset of the nature-based activity, nevertheless, it is merely a portion of nature-based touristry. He besides mentions that some parts of cultural, escapade, loanblends, 3S, alternate and aggregate touristry can besides be seen as a sort of ecotourism. It is interesting to observe that from the adaptancy platform ‘s position, mass touristry and ecotourism are non reciprocally sole ( Weaver, 2001 ) . Wall ( 1997 ) argued that if the ecotourist is more demanding environmentally than the mass tourer who may non see the endangered species in some ecotourism location and whose demand and waste can be planned for, the ecotourist besides can be considered as mass tourer who may bring forth some impact to the environment.
Acott et Al. ( 1998 ) argue that the term ‘ecotourism ‘ does non needfully mention to an activity that is environmentally benign, sometimes it can be used as the selling term that sell merchandises that verge on mass touristry. Given the manner the reading of ecotourism is different people may run ecotourism by stressing different facets. Mader ( 2002 ) argues that there are advantages and disadvantages for utilizing specific point of position. He addressed that the ecotourism undertaking of the preservation groups may hold good preservation programs but tend to miss the selling schemes and the cognition to run the touristry concern. On the other manus, there are some concerns supplying nature Tourss which are extremely profitable but have no community partnership or preservation aid.
2.3.2 The construct of ecotourists
The ecotourist is likewise complex to specify and even no precisely answer to judge. Wight ( 1996 ) states that the motive of the ecotourist convergences with other type of tourer and besides ecotourist can non be defined by the touristry merchandise in which they interested. He besides argued that no 1 can be called ecotourist until they are in the ecotourism finish. When the ecotourist is sing the subject park and on the roller coaster, can we still name he/she an ecotourist? Furthermore, the tourer who travels simply to see the nature environment and is non ecological friendly or good the nature environment besides can non be considered as ecotourist ( Wight, 2001 ) . However, Acott et Al. ( 1998 ) argues that since it is no ground to find an person ‘s environmental value by the geographic location, therefore it is still possible for single to be a non-ecotourist in an ecotourist finish and in the opposite manner to be ecotourists in non-ecotourist locations. Harmonizing to Blamey ( 1995:24, cited in Diamantis, 2004:6 ) an ecotourist is “ anyone who undertakes at least one ecotourism experience in a specified part during a specified period of clip ” . On the other side, Lee and Snepenger ( 1992: 368, cited in Juric et al. , 2002: 261 ) province that
“ Ideal ecotourists are motivated to take part in critically and ecologically sensitive activities, expect their outgos to be used to back up the local economic system and resource preservation, and are willing to lend to preservation and sustainable development in the country of their trip. ”
In this research, the writer takes the definition of Blamey to specify the ecotourist. This is because the aim of this research is to supply a theoretical account to the authorities and private operators to develop their selling schemes in order to pull and increase the sum of the ecotourists they aiming. Therefore, the ecotourists could be seen as people who are willing to take part in the ecotourism activities in the ecotourism country instead than ‘ideal ecotourists ‘ who might be deep ecotourists but merely a little group of people. In the following subdivision, the writer will lucubrate the construct of deep and shallow ecotourist.
2.3.3 Deep and shallow ecotourist
Ecotourists can be separated into active and inactive ecotourists in Orams ‘ ( 1995, cited in Weaver, 2001 ) theoretical account and some of the research workers may name it difficult and soft ecotourists. Harmonizing to a similar duality of Acott et Al. ( 1998 ) it is called it ‘deep ‘ and ‘shallow ‘ ecotourists in this research. No affair which term is used, the differences of deep and shallow ecotourists can be defined below.
Harmonizing to Weaver ( 2001 ) deep ecotourist has a strongly biocentric attitude that is committed to environmental issues. Deep ecotourists desire for the deep and meaningful interaction with natural environment and the activities they do on site are resources based. Deep ecotourists tend to set up the specialised circuit in a little group by themselves and make non necessitate on-site service. On the other manus, the environmental attitudes of shallow ecotourists are non every bit deep as ecotourists which are more implicative of steady instead than augmentative sustainability ( Turner et al. , 1994, cited in Acott et al. , 1998. ) Shallow ecotourists tend to go in a big group and they normally see ecotourism as a portion of their multiple purpose circuit. In kernel, Acott et al. , ( 1998 ) point out that shallow ecotourists represent the point of views that stand between deep ecotourist on one manus and mass tourer on the other manus.
Harmonizing to Fennell ( 2002 ) deep and shallow ecotourists can be viewed as an upside-down trigon ( Figure 2.1 ) . He argues that compared with the larger portion of the soft terminal market, difficult ecotourism sector is comparatively little. The farther up the top of the upside-down trigon the greater of the specialisation, outlook and clip spent with sing to the ecotourism experience. It besides shows that sing the addition of the tourers demand, it is necessary to increase the installation such as hotel, transit and any other needed comfortss. Acott et Al. ( 1998 ) argue that the broad scope of the activities of the ecotourism might hold different environmental impacts and attract people with different motive and set of values. The term ‘shallow ‘ and ‘deep ‘ ecotourist is simply used to distinguish the tourers that verge on the mass touristry and genuinely do an attempt to carry through at environmental touristry.
Specialization, outlook and clip spent
Soft way ecotourism
Number of ecotourists
Reliance on built/modified environment
Based of interests/attractions
Natural history kingdom
Beginning: Fennell ( 2002: 18 )
Figure 2.1: soft and difficult dimensions of ecotourism
To sum up all the statements the writer has explored above, there is turning understanding that ecotourism consists of three standards ( Weaver, 2002 ) despite the confusion environing it. First, harmonizing to its attractive forces ecotourism is fundamentally nature-based. This is including a holistic experience or merchandise that involves with the ecosystem. Second, the motive and interaction of the ecotourists are based on the desire to appreciate and larn about the nature-based attractive forces. There is an of import component to distinguish ecotourism from other signifiers of nature-based touristry by larning and grasp. The 3rd nucleus constituent of the ecotourism is sustainability. Weaver ( 2002:254 ) argues that ‘sustainability does non inherently depend on graduated table at all ‘ . Depending on the fortunes, whether little or big scale touristry could be good or bed in result.
2.4 Ecotourism in Taiwan
Griffin ( 2002 ) points that due to the September 11, 2001, the tendency of travel has changed to safer finishs and manners of travel. The consequence of this will convey more force per unit area on the domestic and short-haul finish into major market. In Taiwan, about half of the domestic touristry activity focuses on nature-related activities ( Tourism Bureau, 2005 ) .
However, the high population denseness and lifting economic activity in Taiwan has generated some negative impacts on Taiwan ‘s natural environment ( Tao et al. , 2004 ) . Despite these jobs, Chinese people are still interested in ecotourism and besides have become more concerned toward the preservation of natural environment ( Tourism Bureau, 1997 ) . The Ministry of the Interior ( 2004 ) asserts that improper development of ecotourism will convey some benefit to some people in the short term but this may ensue in unsustainable touristry development in the long term. However, Weaver ( 2002 ) maintains that the ecotourism provides a fiscal inducement for continuing the undisturbed sectors far more than potentially unsustainable activities. These unsustainable activities such as commercial logging, excavation, runing and agribusiness may use in both protected and unprotected country. For case, Lindberg ( 1998 ; cited in Weaver, 2002 ) argues that in the East African savanna, wildlife observation can convey far more income than runing.
Kenting National Park is the most popular finish country in Taiwan, and so, much more popular than other public protected countries ( Tourism Bureau, 1998-2005 ) . Although Kenting National Park has the most species of wildlife around 3,828 different species both over and below H2O ( Minister of Interior, 2001 ) , since Taiwan ‘s authorities put more attending and accent into developing and pull offing new public protected country, the touristry arrived rate in Kenting National Park has somewhat decreased in recent old ages ( Tourism Bureau, 2004 ) . In response to the United Nations ‘ declaration of 2002 universe Ecotourism Year, Taiwan ‘s authorities besides asserted that 2002 is Ecotourism Year in Taiwan. In order to advance this program, Taiwan ‘s authorities invested about 500 thousand lbs to construct up Taiwan as Ecotourism island ( Hsu, 2002 ) .
However, in 2002 Ecotourism White Paper stated that due to most of the eco-tour operators non truly understanding the existent significance of ecotourism, the eco-tour which they provide does non conform to the end of the ecotourism such as resource preservation, instruction of tourers and benefit to the local community. Furthermore, the ecotourism market in Taiwan is still limited ; therefore it can non pull the operators ‘ involvement to fall in into the little ecotourism market. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the demands and the environmental attitudes of Chinese ecotourists to develop more effectual programs and schemes. This sort of schemes can lend to the whole touristry market for more sustainability of development and peculiarly reenforce the ecotourism market in the environment, economic and societal facets. If the implement of the schemes work, it will offer a sustainable development for states and local communities, and retain the biodiversity of life which is a agency to accomplish the end of developing ecotourism ( Wearing and Neil, 2003 ) .
2.5 Trends Affecting Ecotourism
Harmonizing to Diamantis ( 1999:101 ) , ‘all the ecotourism definitions irrespective of their stance ( active or inactive ) include the natural-based constituent ‘ , nevertheless, ‘all signifiers of travel to natural country are non needfully ecotourism ‘ ( Wearing and Neil, 2003:4 ) . Nowadays, people travel to national Parkss or protected countries for get awaying the urban life and besides because of the rise of environmental concern ( Wearing and Neil, 2003 ) . They besides mention that to cognize the motive of the tourer can be a manner to distinguish the constituent of ecotourism and nature-based touristry. Goodwin ( 1996, cited in Diamantis, 1999 ) states that based on the motive of their consumers, it is possible to turn nature touristry in to ecotourism. For ecotourist, ‘nature is an built-in portion of their experience but non the cardinal motive for them ‘ ( Wearing and Neil, 2003:5 ) . The desire to see and larn about the nature is consequence of altering attitudes to the environment ( Weaver, 2001 ) . Uysal et Al. ( 1994, cited in Wurzinger and Johansson, 2006 ) besides found that people who take national Parkss to be their chief finish were found to be more concerned about the environment and the balance of nature.
2.6 Market profile
From the socio-demographic point of position, the profile of the ecotourist could be divided into gender, age, instruction, income and business. Harmonizing to Weaver ( 2001 ) , one of the most of import determiners of the ecotourist is age. The International Ecotourism Society ( 2006 ) asserts that the chief market of ecotourism in Europe in center to aged age. As people age, alternatively of active, unsafe and out-door recreational activities, they appreciate less strenuous activities. Therefore, the changed construction of the demographic will bring forth more demand of the ecotourism, soft escapade and civilization trip ( HLA/ARA, 1994 ; Eagles 1995 ; cited in Weaver, 2001 ) . However, the Ecotourism Supplementary Survey found that half of the inbound tourists to Australia are in the 20-29 age ( Weaver, 2001 ) . In fact, the age of the ecotourist is variable depending on what kinds of activities are held in the ecotourism location ( Wight, 1996 ) and the differences of the mark population of the finish ( Weaver, 2001 ) . With respect to instruction factor, TIES ( 2006 ) asserted that the ecotourist in Europe tends to hold a higher instruction grade. This is besides verified in most of the literature that ecotourists tend to hold higher educational makings than general tourers ( Wight, 1996 ; Weaver, 2001 ; Wight, 2001 ) . Potentially, the income of the ecotourist is higher than the general tourer ( Weaver, 2001 ; TIES, 2006 ) .
However, harmonizing to Wight ( 1996 ) this consequence does non back up by US escapade travel study. Again, depending on different sort of the activity clasp in the ecotourism finish the consequence will be different consequently. However, what can be acknowledged here is the age, degree of instruction and income is possible to positive comparative with each other. The ecotourists who are aged may normally hold higher income and higher educational degree than the immature 1s. In this research, the purpose is to develop a market profile of the Chinese ecotourist in the Kenting National Park to acquire a better penetration of Chinese ecotourists who spend their clip in the national park.
2.7.1 The travel motives of the ecotourists
Tourism development is both supply-led and demand-driven. In order to react to the turning demand and to excite tourist demand, the proviso of tourer installations and services may besides originate ( Liu, 2003 ) . However, ecotourism is an exclusion that is different to mass touristry. Clark ( 2002 ) states that ecotourism tends to be supply instead than demand orientated. Wahaba ( 1975, cited in Pearce, 2005 ) suggests that the fundamental in touristry surveies and touristry development is based on travel motive. Weaver ( 2002:253 ) besides mentions that ‘travel is normally associated with multiple motivations ‘ . Several research workers have seen motive as the taking power behind all actions ( Crompton, 1979 ; Fodness, 1994 ; Iso-Ahola, 1982 ; cited in Pearce, 2005 ) . ‘Motivation has been referred to as psychological/biological demands and wants ‘ ( Yoon and Uysal, 2003:46 ) such as built-in forces which direct a individual ‘s behavior. Fennell ( 1990, cited in Tao et al. , 2004 ) refers that travel motive is experiences or benefits which straight affect the pick of trip or finish.
Motivation tends to be mutable in a short period of clip, therefore it seems to be different when each clip people make the determination for a trip. Yoon and Uysal ( 2003 ) point that in the psychological science and sociology ‘s point of position, motive can be divided into internal motivations which are associated with thrusts, mental and inherent aptitudes and external motivations which are affecting mental representations such as cognition or beliefs.
2.7.2 Push and pull factors
Dann ( 1977, cited in Klenosky, 2002 ) states that to explicating the motives underlying tourer behavior, push-pull model ( Figure 2.2 ) is a kind of simple and intuitive attack. Push motives are related to tourist ‘s desire which is more about the internal and emotional facets. On the other manus, pull motives are involve in the properties of the finish pick which are connected to external, situational and cognitive facets ( Yoon and Uysal, 2003 ) . By and large talking, Liu ( 2003:462 ) points that ‘the demand determiners push a tourer into a travel determination while the supply factors pull the tourer toward a peculiar finish ‘ . Therefore, push and pull factors can be characterized into two determinations made in two points of clip.
First, when people decide whether to travel so they will make up one’s mind where to travel and what to make during their trip. Because of the different clip points of push and pull factors, therefore Dann ( 1977, cited in Klenosky, 2002: 385 ) refers that ‘push factors precede pull factors ‘ . However, more late Pearce ( 1993 ) and Dann ( 1996, cited in Awaritefe, 2004 ) suggest that the integrating of both abstract ( tourers ‘ demands and motive ) and touchable factors ( finish properties ) are much more suited for explicating tourer ‘s finish pick.
“ Push ” to go ( human demand )
“ Pull ” to go ( finish attraction )
Static- landscape, clime, civilization
Dynamic-accommodation, nutrient, service, entree.
Current decision-promotion, monetary value.
Figure 2.2: Travel/tourism motives
Beginning: Awaritefe ( 2004: 306 ) .
In the instance of travel and touristry, the attitude of a corporation ‘must balance the involvement of shareholders/owners and with the long-term environmental involvements of a finish and the same clip run into the demands and outlook of clients ‘ ( Middleton, 2002:8 ) . Harmonizing to Wight ( 1996 ) the grounds and motives for taking ecotourism in holiday is dynamic, it could be any sort of class such as finish, specific market section, preferable activities, instruction, qualities of topographic point or any other grounds. He besides mentioned that the major ground for an ecotourism trip can be group into: nature-based, out-of-door activity, cultural activity-related and other. This survey seeks to set up which factor motivates Chinese ecotourists in footings of ‘push ‘ or ‘pull ‘ factors, in order to acquire the deeper apprehension of their travel motive and their attitudes of the environment.
In this chapter, the writer reviewed the old literature which begins from the construct of the sustainability and underscores that ecotourism is one of the activities maintains the sustainability of both environment and local community. Furthermore, the writer besides categorized ecotourism into deep and shallow ecotourism in order to show the degree of the environmental attitude toward ecotourists. Finally, sing to the travel motive of the ecotourists, it besides can be divided into push and pull factors which may act upon the desire of ecotourists to see a finish.
Chapter 3. Methodology and informations aggregation
As stated by Silverman ( 2002:88 ) , methodological analysis is ‘a general attack to analyzing research subjects ‘ . Carson et Al. ( 2001 ) assert that a research job requires an appropriate methodological analysis for garnering informations. In this chapter, foremost the writer discusses the epistemic orientation of this research to specify and show which methodological analysis the writer uses in this research. Second, the writer explains why the writer chooses a study questionnaire to carry on this research and how the informations are collected. Finally, at the terminal of this chapter, ethical considerations are presented, in add-on to discourse about dependability and cogency.
3.2 Epistemic considerations
Harmonizing to Druckman ( 2005:5 ) ‘epistemology is the survey of cognition and how it is required ‘ . Alternative epistemic foundations for research normally involve the arguments about positivism and constructivism. Positivist methodological analysis is underpinned by cause and consequence ; it focuses upon what causes the behavior we observe ( Finn et al. , 2000 ) . Jary and Jary ( 1991, cited in Riley et Al. 2000 ) specify positivism as a belief that scientific is the lone true cognition, it describes the interrelatedness between existent and discernible phenomena. They besides point out that the natural scientific discipline can be applied to the survey of societal phenomena unproblematically.
However, Riley et Al. ( 2000 ) argue that there are still some critics of positivism. They argue that rationalist attacks to research are inappropriate to the survey of societal phenomena, since societal phenomena normally focus on people and human behavior. However the merchandise of human action and the survey of people are non conformable to the techniques which are associated with positivism. For illustration, for ethical grounds, it is frequently non possible to carry on experiments. Therefore, positivism methods are limited in explicating and depicting human behavior. Nevertheless, Kitchin and Tate ( 2000 ) believe that even though the Torahs of society and societal relationships are more complex than nature, they still could be discovered by utilizing the same rule. Therefore, research worker can find Torahs and predict and explicate human behavior in footings of causes and consequence by the careful and nonsubjective aggregation of informations.
Harmonizing to Riley et Al. ( 2000:10 ) ‘the chief look of the rationalist attack to research is the hypothetico-deductive research method ‘ . Deductive logical thinking means that the theory comes before the research and the intent of the research is to prove the cogency of a theory. Tax write-off is the procedure which begins with theory and goes through hypothesis, informations aggregation, and testing of the hypothesis to infer accounts of societal phenomena. Bryman and Bell ( 2003:10 ) besides province that societal research workers must ‘deduce a hypothesis and so interpret it into operational footings ‘ . However, Ghobadian and Gallear ( 1997, cited in Bryman and Bell, 2003 ) argue that the variables and issues identified were largely contextual and therefore did non interpret into simple concepts. Therefore, the authoritative hypotheses are non easy formulated.
In this research, the research worker has been informed by the secondary research that ecotourists tend to be aged, extremely educated, have a high income and tend to pass more in a finish than other market section. Furthermore, their motives to see an ecotourism site are related to their environmental attitudes. Even though this information can non be seen as theories but it can be seen as general phenomena which exist in our societal. Harmonizing to the old research, the writer has developed a hypothesis that Chinese ecotourists are extremely educated, have high income and tend to pass more on site, they are of mature age and they all concerned about the environment. Therefore, the research worker adopts the positive place to utilize the scientific method by garnering a big figure of informations from Chinese ecotourists to verify or distort whether the premises applied in the foreign states is besides valid in Taiwan. Bryman and Bell ( 2003 ) assert that quantitative scheme entails a deductive attack in which the speech pattern is placed on the testing of theories and incorporates the norms of positivism. Therefore in the following subdivision the research worker will discourse a quantitative research scheme in more deepness.
3.3 Quantitative and qualitative attacks
Punch ( 1998, cited in Finn et al. , 2000 ) notes that quantitative informations are in the signifier of Numberss, and those of qualitative informations are non. Finn et Al. ( 2000 ) province that due to the intent of research and the method of informations aggregation being different, the research strategies a research worker adopted may besides change. Quantitative research is frequently associated with the hypothetico-deductive attack of theory testing, but qualitative research is to bring forth theory. However, Bryman and Bell ( 2003 ) argue that there are still a batch of surveies where qualitative research has been used to prove instead than to bring forth theory. Harmonizing to Payne and Payne ( 2004 ) by dividing the societal universe into empirical constituents which can be represented numerically as frequences or rate, quantitative methods can seek regularities in human lives. They besides argue that the nucleus concern of quantitative method is ‘to describe and history for regularities in societal behavior, instead than seeking out and construing the significances that people bring to their ain actions ‘ ( Payne and Payne, 2004:181 ) . Druckman ( 2005 ) besides refers that by quantifying the information which researcher collected can compare a big figure of instances more easy.
On the other manus, Silverman ( 2001 ) argues that qualitative research provides a deeper apprehension of societal phenomena than strictly quantitative informations. The deeper apprehensions include interior experience, linguistic communication, cultural significance or signifiers of societal interaction. By definition, qualitative research is stronger on long descriptive narrations than statistical informations. Mason ( 2002 ) besides points out the aim of qualitative research is to seek societal state of affairss and specific experiences. However, Bryman ( 1988, cited in Payne and Payne, 2004 ) argues that qualitative research makes small sense to seek general Torahs of how society works, because it tends to seek the complex state of affairs and deeper significance of single.
Quantitative and qualitative research can non be precisely distinguished from each other. Harmonizing to Druckman ( 2005:8 ) ‘quantitative surveies have important qualitative facets, particularly with respect to reading ‘ . Furthermore, Finn et Al. ( 2000 ) argue that both qualitative and quantitative researches have their failings and strengths, utilizing combination of attacks can better the cogency of the research. By utilizing a combination of research methods in the same survey, findings can be checked with each other, therefore increase the cogency of a research. However, in this research the research worker concentrates on quantitative methods because Bryman and Bell ( 2003 ) province that the construct of the quantitative is to mensurate the consequence and explicate the significance and the relation of the dependant or independent variables into the words, which people can understand easy.
In order to acquire a the general profile of specific group of tourers and utilize the figure generated by a group of people to cognize the motive and benefit sought of Chinese ecotourist, it is better to utilize quantitative research to look into the tendencies of ecotourists. On the other manus, the research worker needs a big sample to cognize the demands and penchants of a big figure of the population to put up a general jurisprudence instead than acquire the deep apprehension of a little figure of people. Furthermore, the research worker believes by utilizing the numeral informations to compare the rate or figure of different variables, the research worker can acquire the information from different degree or mark market, in order to analyse and develop specific scheme for a big figure of ecotourists in Taiwan.
As highlighted in Chapter Two, the extant literature indicates that the environmental attitude of tourer is extremely related to the motive of them to take part in ecotourism. Furthermore, the market profiles of ecotourists tend to be aged, extremely educated and have a high income people. The quantitative method is the best manner to prove whether this hypothesis is true or non in Taiwan.
3.4 Data aggregation method
The research will concentrate on the motives and the attitude towards the environment of the ecotourists in Taiwan, particularly concentrating on Chinese ecotourists. This is because the domestic touristry market in Taiwan is 30 times more than people travel from other states ( Tourism Bureau, 2005 ) . Since the continuance of this research is limited to five months from February to August in 2007, in order to finish the research in the short period of clip, the range of this research has to be defined.
The sites of ecotourism can be divided into public and private protected countries. In this research, the research merely focuses on public protected countries because these sites have many more tourers than the private protected country. Among the populace protected country there are six national Parkss and several different sorts of natural based touristry attractive forces. Kenting National Park is the first established national park and besides it is the 1 which has both over and below H2O country in Taiwan. Harmonizing to the Minister of the Interior ( 2001 ) , Kenting National Park is a park has the most varied species: up to 3, 828 species in it. Given the impressive biodiversity in this park, Kenting National Park could be seen as the representable site of ecotourism.
Since the definitions and accounts of ecotourism vary depending on different schools for illustration, the definitions were be different readings by environmentalists, professional organisation and academicians ( Sirakaya et al. , 1999 ) and besides there is no universally accepted definition of ecotourism ( Tao et al. , 2004 ) , therefore, the research worker will specify the ecotourist as people who participate in any nature-based activities in Kenting National Park. However, by utilizing this attack the consequence of this research can non separate the difficult and soft ecotourists in ecotourism market. Furthermore, the research conducted in the Kenting National Park may non stand for the sentiment of all Chinese ecotourists. These may be the deficits of this research.
This research is based on a study attack. Finn et Al. ( 2000 ) maintain that utilizing the study research can acquire a great sum of information in a short period of clip and can be used to compare the person in the sample. A questionnaire is designed to roll up information on the travel motive benefit sought, activities and environmental attitudes of Chinese ecotourists in Kenting National Park which were indiscriminately sampled in the five different attractive musca volitanss among Kenting National Park. The sites – Kenting Forest Recreation Area, Nanwan, Eluanbi Park, Cingwashih, National Museum of Marine Biology – were obtained by written study of Kenting National Park Administration Office. They were selected as representative of the chief types of touristry finishs in Kenting National Park. Tourism directors from the five sites were consulted to administer the questionnaire in the entrywaies.
On the other manus, in order to compare the environmental attitude of ecotourists, the research worker besides applies the questionnaires in the metropolis to be the control group with the ecotourists in Kenting. The questionnaire is the same as the one research worker applies in the Kenting National Park, but merely approximately age, gender, educational degree and the environmental attitude. The study questionnaires are distributed in the Taipei which is the capital metropolis of Taiwan.
3.5 Survey questionnaire
Multiple pick and open-ended inquiry are employed in the questionnaire. Williams ( 2003 ) references that questionnaire is the deal cellar of societal research. As noted by Botteril ( 2000: 183 ) ‘the questionnaire has become the societal scientist ‘s flag ‘ . Harmonizing to Bryman and Bell ( 2003 ) , the advantages of the questionnaire are that they are cheaper, quicker, and that there is an absence of interviewer effects, no interviewer variableness and convenient to respondents. Selltiz et Al. ( 1978 ) besides note that the advantages of utilizing questionnaire are less expensive and it can be administered to big figure of single at the same time.
Since the sum of financess is limited, therefore utilizing questionnaire is possible to cover wider country to obtain information from more people. Furthermore, the respondents may hold more assurance in their namelessness, and therefore they can experience freer to reply the inquiries. There are however some disadvantages of questionnaires such as the informations collected normally is based on old find, and therefore may restrict the flexibleness of the research ( Williams, 2003 ) . The research worker can non inquire excessively many inquiries because excessively many inquiries may do respondents experience tired and may take hold greater hazard of losing informations, taking to a lower the useable rate ( Bell and Bryman, 2003 ) . The demands of this research is to cognize the grounds why people choose ecotourism to be their travel finish instead than understand the perceptual experiences, significances, definition of state of affairs and buildings of world of the ecotourists going in the site.
The questionnaires are translated in Chinese and design to roll up general, motive, demographic and psychographic information. Furthermore, before administering the questionnaires to the ecotourists, the research worker gives to the people in five different age graduated table in progress to prove whether this questionnaire is easy to understand and there is no confounding word in it. Harmonizing to Tao et Al. ( 2004:156 ) the ‘legal age for grownups in Taiwan is 20 and it was presumed that a individual of that age was cognizant of his or her aspiration for the trip ‘ , therefore study population was defined as insouciant and tour visitants over 20 old ages old or older who visited the Kenting National Park. The method of informations aggregation is through self-completion questionnaire which is distributed in the five popular touristry attractive forces in the Kenting National Park. On the other manus, the questionnaire used for control group was besides by self-completion conducted in the Taipei train station where is the most representative site of Taipei.
Besides questionnaire there are still some methods that be used to make this research such as interviews and observations. Silverman ( 2001 ) argues that observation is non a really of import method in quantitative research because the samples of the quantitative research are ever excessively big to be observed. Furthermore, observation can non be seen as a dependable information aggregation since the records may different by the perceivers ( Silverman, 2001 ) . Sing with the interview methodological analysis, Patton ( 1990, cited in Carson et al. , 2001 ) points out that the intent of the interview is to acquire into some one ‘s caput and enter into their position to detect their feeling, memories and believing. The aim of this research is to detect the selling profile of Chinese ecotourists, therefore the chief point of the research is to acquire the general feature of ecotourists to cognize the mark and possible invitees of ecotourism instead than cognize what they are believing and experiencing approximately. Furthermore, utilizing interviews may cut down the comparison between every variable and the quality of interview may depend on the communicating accomplishments of the interviewer ( Finn et al. , 2000 ) . The other disadvantage of interview is that it is hard to analyse the information ( Finn et al. , 2000 ) . In the following subdivision, the writer discusses about how to roll up the informations by study questionnaire.
3.6 Sample Features
Harmonizing to Kidder ( 1981 ) , a important issue in every piece of research is whether the research decision can be generalized beyond the research subjects. The best manner to guarantee that the consequence can be generalized is to pull a representative sample. To avoid the consequence of any major distressing event on tourers ‘ motives and penchants, the study was conducted at an interval of every weekend between April and May 2007 with 135 questionnaires distributed by one research worker and three voluntaries and 45 questionnaires distributed by park staff. Even though this is non the extremum season in Kenting, there are still some of the large activities held by the authorities during these months. Therefore, it is extremely possible to roll up the necessary informations.
The choice of respondents in the sites was by systematic random trying. Respondents are intercepted for questionnaire study on the visitants ‘ reaching at an interval of every first, 5th and 10th individual. Completed questionnaires were retrieved from respondents at the terminal of their visit. A sum of 180 questionnaires are distributed: 45 in National Museum of Marine Biology, 48 in Kenting Forest Recreation Area, 34 in Nanwan, 36 in Eluanbi Park, 17 in Cingwashih. The uneven respondent rate in each site is result from the different popularity rate. Sum of 138 questionnaires were right filled, giving a extremely functional response rate of 76.6 per cent. On the other manus, of the 55 questionnaires distribute in Taipei metropolis 50 questionnaires were useable, giving the higher response rate of 90.9 per cent.
The ensuing sample was chiefly female ( 58.0 % ) and between the ages of 20 and 72. The sampling frame is limited to the Park visitants while in the Park. Visitors are asked if they would wish to take part in this survey. Equally long as they agreed, they are given a brief description of the survey aims.
3.7 Questionnaire design
The inquiries ask in the questionnaire are informed by the literature reappraisal. The literature reappraisal identified the relation between ecotourists and their environmental attitudes, and the selling profile of ecotourism as described in the old subdivision, which are used to steer the questionnaire development. The questionnaire was designed to derive information from the visitants to Kenting National Park. Multiple pick, open-ended inquiries and understanding graduated tables were employed in this questionnaire.
The questionnaire was written in Chinese, and consisted of four subdivisions that contained 29 inquiries associating to the visitant ‘s personal information, general behavioral properties of tourers, motives and environmental attitude. Part One, dwelling of five inquiries, is designed to obtain demographic information, including age, gender, instruction, income and tour comrades. Separate Two investigated the types of activities visitants participated in, length of stay and their outgo in the Park. Part Three focuses on the motives of the visitants coming to the site and was divided in to two subdivisions: push and pull factors. The concluding portion concerns the environmental attitudes. This subdivision is based on one portion of the study by Tao et Al. ( 2004 ) . Their survey profiled features of Chinese ecotourists who visited Taroko National Park in eastern Taiwan, including environmental attitudes. For each inquiry, the research liker graduated table scope from strongly differ to strongly hold was used.
3.8.1 Cultural considerations
In societal research, moralss occupy a peculiarly of import topographic point. It concerns about accomplishing a balance between being an aim research worker and being a morally bound citizen ( Williams, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Mason ( 2002 ) , it is of import to make the research in an ethical mode, which is non merely to transport out the informations and analysis, but besides design the research inquiry morally. In this research, the research worker starts from puting the aims to put the way of this research. The first measure is to do certain the intent of this research is ethical.
As mentioned in Chapter One, the intent of this research is to look into the penetration and their motive of Chinese ecotourists to develop a theoretical account for the ecotourism operators, which is non for utilizing in unethical manner. Furthermore, the research worker had to see the parties which are potentially involved by this research, which is ecotourist, the staff of Kenting National Park and the population ( command group ) . For the staff in Kenting National Park, the research worker asked the Administration of Kenting National Park about the possibility of carry oning research in the Kenting National Park and if it is possible to set the questionnaire in the entrywaies in the musca volitanss which the research worker chooses. For the ecotourists, before carry oning the questionnaire the research worker made a brief debut about the research and the intent of utilizing it. This action was to allow them cognize the research worker ‘s intent is for academic research instead than private usage. In the portion of planing the questionnaire, the inquiries are non related to political relations, spiritual and confidential issues, which is to avoid the uncomfortable feeling and the unneeded issues. However, even though the research worker has considered all of these facets, but it is necessarily to upset the ecotourists ‘ circuit and temper and the questionnaires put in the entrywaies of the popular musca volitanss may increase the work burden of the staff working at that place.
3.8.2 Validity trials and dependability analysis
Punch ( 1998:102 ) points out that ‘reliability and cogency are the two chief psychometric features of mensurating instruments ‘ . Reliability is a grade which represents of the consistence of the respondent who responds the same reply at the different clip or the consequences are assigned to the same class by different respondents.
Harmonizing to David and Sutton ( 2004:14 ) , ‘validity refers to the grade to which a measurement instrument really steps and describes the construct it was designed to ‘ .
In this research, the research worker conducts the pre-test of the questionnaire to mensurate whether it is easy to understand for the respondents and do certain there are no equivocal inquiries in the questionnaire. First, the research worker choose her familiarity to look into the inquiries whether there are some inquiry make them confound or non, and so distributes the questionnaire on the street to do certain there is no misconstruing sentences on the questionnaire. The consequence of the pre-test is positive. It shows the extremely feasible rate of this questionnaire. Furthermore, Punch ( 1998 ) points out that there are two chief facets to the consistence of the dependability: consistence over clip and internal consistence.
Sing to the consistence over clip, due to the limited of the resource in this research, alternatively of carry oning the questionnaire to the same respondents in a different clip graduated table, the research distributes the questionnaire randomly and in different clip graduated table in order to maximise the dependability of the research. Sing to the internal consistence, one of the best known method to mensurate the dependability of a research is by split-half techniques, the coefficient alpha ( Punch, 1989 ) . Harmonizing to Guidford ( 1965 ) , the consequence can be tested whether it is consistence or non by Cronbach ‘s I± , when I± factor is more than 0.7, it is the most dependable ; when I± factor is less than 0.35, it is less dependable. It can be seen that I± factor in this research is 0.626, which shows that this research is in the scope of dependability. On the other manus, sing to the cogency of the research is to mensurate whether the relationships between variables in the survey have been right interpreted ( Punch, 1998 ) .
Table 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 show in this research is the consequences of the questionnaire, which is decidedly transcript from the consequence shows on the SPSS system. It means the mistake of computation is minimized and the consequences are improbable to be interpreted departs from the truth. Furthermore, harmonizing to Silverman ( 2000 ) by changeless comparative method is one of the attacks to mensurate the cogency of the research. In this research the writer uses the control group which represents of the mass population to be the mention to compare the environmental attitude with the ecotourists.
Table 3.1: The rate of the dependability
Cronbach ‘s I±
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15, 16
A1, A2, A3, A4
B1, B2, B3, B4
C1, C2, C3, C4
In this chapter, the writer starts from the epistemic thought of the research methodological analysiss to give the way of this research. Since this research is base on the old literature, the writer adopted deductive attack and investigated the market profile of the Chinese ecotourists to turn out whether the consequences are consistent with the old research which conducted in abroad. The research worker adopted a study questionnaire to be the research attack in order to acquire the numerical consequence and consistently infer the information to the meaningful cogent evidence. Finally, the writer referred to some cardinal points to prove the cogency and dependability of this research and finds that this research has extremely cogency and dependability. In the following subdivision, the writer analyses the consequence of the study questionnaire by each portion to explicate the deeper significance of the figure.
Chapter 4. Finding and analysis
In this chapter, the writer present the determination and analysis of informations gathered from both ecotourists and control group in order to obtain the statistical groundss to turn out or confute the hypothesis, which was developed from the secondary research. First, the writer present the analysis of informations the information from the first portion of the questionnaire which was related to the demographic features and the preferable activities of the Chinese ecotourists. In this portion, the writer identifies the position of the ecotourism market in present and the possible market in the hereafter. In the 2nd portion, the writer analyzes the informations and discusses about the relationship between motive factors and demographic profiles of ecotourism. For illustration, whether age variable influences the consequence of push and pull factors. Finally, the writer explores in subdivision 4.4 whether the environmental attitude and the ecotourists has extremely positive correlativity or non.
4.2 Visitor features
Harmonizing to Morin et Al. ( 1997, cited in Chin et al. , 2000:26 ) ‘successful direction of touristry in natural countries depends on cognition of both visitant and utilize characteristic ‘ . Therefore, foremost the research worker wants to specify the profile of the Chinese ecotourists. In this survey, the Chinese ecotourists were largely female ( 42.0 per cent male and 58.0 per cent female see Table 4.1 ) . Harmonizing to Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics Executive Yuan, Taiwan ( 2007 ) , the split in the general Taiwanese population is 52.7 per cent males and 47.6 per cent females. This consequence shows that females have higher leaning to fall in the ecotourism trip.
However, Wight ( 1996 ) argues that gender distinction is non a general regulation to specify which gender prefers to take part in ecotourism, but varied by activities. In this research, there are no important differences between male and female to fall in the hike, H2O activities, wildlife observation, landform observation, astronomy observation and so on, but the outstanding differences are bicycling ( Male: 20.9 per cent, Female: 43.7 per cent ) and sightseeing ( Male: 37.9 per cent, Female: 58.7 per cent ) ( Table 4.1 ) . It is apparent that the genders are every bit interested in the overall scope of ecotourism activities. However, there may hold somewhat gender differences for specific activities and this may besides change over clip.
Table 4.1: Demographic profiles of ecotourists in Kenting