After the autumn of the Han Dynasty. China saw much pandemonium similar to what happened in Europe after the autumn of the Roman Empire. Unlike Europe though. China was finally reunited. The Tang Dynasty was the following Chinese Dynasty to unify China for an drawn-out sum of clip.
The Tang dynasty is known as the “golden age” of Chinese civilization. The capital of the Tang Dynasty. Chang-an. became improbably affluent and supported the blossoming of Chinese civilization.
Due to the popularity of the Silk Road trade paths. Chang-an became a meeting topographic point of many different civilizations and faiths: Christianity. Zoroastrianism. Judaism. and Islam all influenced Tang civilization. Syrians. Jews. Arabs. Persians. Koreans. Tibetans. and Nipponese all lived side by side with the Chinese of Chang-an. In 636. Christians from Syria were allowed to construct a church and clasp Christian services hardly six hundred old ages after the initiation of Christianity and less than three hundred old ages after Christianity had become the province faith of Rome. The aliens non merely brought in new faiths. but new apparels. culinary art. literature. and music every bit good. The imperial tribunal itself had several executing companies of histrions and instrumentalists gathered from environing states for good executing at the tribunal.
Among their cultural accomplishments. the Tang craftsmen excelled in doing porcelain and jade clayware. utensils and sculptures. Tang weavers advanced their silk-weaving. doing apparels much softer and more excessive than what Europeans were have oning in their abrasive wool. Porcelain and silk were in high demand. fostering increasing the trade between the universe and China.
Poetry became a popular topic for all these new readers. The poet Li Po ( 701-762 ) became rather popular. His poesy focused on simple linguistic communication that allowed the reader to instantly understand his emotions. He loved to observe the beauty of life and nature and wanted to portion that love.
1. Describe how foreign civilizations were viewed in China during this clip?
2. During the Tang Dynasty. what goods were in high demand on the Silk Road?
AFTER YOU READ BOTH ARTICLES! ! ! ! ! ( ONE ON THE BACK ) RANK THE TOP FIVE IMPORTANT ACHIEVEMENTS FROM THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES IN ORDER AND EXPLAIN WHY! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
The Song Dynasty. 960-1279 Ad
Finally. the Tang Dynasty fell under force per unit area from outside invasions and domestic rebellions. The Song Dynasty shortly took control over China after the autumn of the Tang.
The Song Economy
Under the Song Dynasty. China experienced an agricultural and commercial revolution. Chinese husbandmans saw their production and wealth addition dramatically. For 100s of old ages Chinese dynasties had required provincials to make free manual labour for the authorities each twelvemonth. This was how China built the Great Wall and roads. All the clip they spent working for the authorities. was less clip they worked on their Fieldss. The Song Dynasty eliminated forced labour. Second. husbandmans were allowed to purchase and sell land for the first clip. You see. some people are merely better at occupations than other people. By allowing husbandmans buy and sell land. good husbandmans could purchase land from bad husbandmans and bring forth more harvests on that land. These two factors resulted in a phenomenal addition in agricultural production. and the wealth of the authorities and single husbandman increased significantly ( though most husbandmans ne’er became “wealthy. ” )
The most of import economic invention of the Song was the widespread usage of money. China was the first state to utilize both paper and coin money. This helped China in 2 ways. First off. provincials used to hold to pay their revenue enhancements in grain. The Song Dynasty now allowed husbandmans to pay their revenue enhancements in money. Since they no longer needed to turn grain. this freed up weak husbandmans to sell their farms and travel acquire occupations they’d be better at in metropoliss. Anytime you give people more freedom to take their occupations. the economic system will better as they get occupations they’re better at. Second. before the widespread usage of money. trade had to be done as bartering – people exchanged goods for other goods.
If a husbandman wanted to purchase a caprine animal. so he and the goat’s proprietor would hold to come up with some kind of trade. “I’ll give you half a cow! ” Obviously. that’s an awkward manner to make things. So the usage of money made trade MUCH easier. and the economic system increased due to this! The dining economic system led to the growing of metropoliss. The metropolis of Kaifeng finally had a population of 250. 000 families. The metropolis of Hangchow had a population of 391. 000 families. Compare that to Europe during the same period: Rome had an mean population of about 35. 000 families and London had a population of about 20. 000 families. No civilisation on Earth was comparable to China during the Song Dynasty.
These Chinese metropoliss were spliting at the seams with merchandisers and trade. What were some of the goods and innovations that other civilizations wanted? Merchants along the Silk Road evidently made most of their money off the trade in porcelain and silks. During this clip period. China besides invented a procedure to do steel and began bring forthing gunpowder arms. The demand for goods and services was so great that China began an unprecedented acceleration of foreign trade. Chinese goods were traded as far off as Africa and the Middle East. China besides created debriss – the largest ocean-going vass in the universe at the clip that carried Chinese goods over the Indian Ocean all the manner to Africa.
China besides built legion canals. Canals are semisynthetic rivers that allowed transportation and transit to new countries. The largest canal. the Grand Canal. was built to associate the Yellow and Yangtze rivers and do it easier to transport rice from the North to the South. assisting to forestall famishment and bettering the economic system.
Even though they were comfortable. the Song Dynasty besides fell like every other Chinese dynasty before it. This clip. they were overrun by a unsafe people to their North: the Mongols.
The Song Dynasty besides saw the innovation of the movable-type printing imperativeness. Originally. if person wanted to do a transcript of a book. they would hold to compose it all out by manus. which took a long clip. Using movable-type nevertheless. craftsmen created blocks of letters like the type your future kids will play with. When they wanted to do a book. they would set up the letters into a transcript of a page. While this took a long clip. the pressman could so turn over ink over the blocks and so utilize the blocks to do 100s and 100s of transcripts. This allowed a Huge sum of books to be printed much more stingily. doing literacy to be more widespread.
1. Explain the Two reforms made during the Song Dynasty that improved agricultural production from husbandmans.
2. Explain how the usage of paper and coin money gave provincials more freedom.
3. Explain how the usage of paper and coin money increased trade.
4. What were two technological innovations made in China during this clip?
5. What map did “junks” hold?
6. What was the intent of the Grand Canal?
7. Why was the innovation of movable type so of import in Song China?