Adolescent Pregnancy 2 Essay, Research Paper
Pregnancy Among Teens All societies possess societal criterions that control the sequence and the pacing of of import life happenings. Frank Furstenberg in, Unplanned Parenthood introduces this impression of societal criterions through what he footings the normative agenda. Harmonizing to Furstenberg normative agendas are, & # 8220 ; prescribed life classs, it is the timing of life events & # 8221 ; ( Furstenberg pg.2 ) . Normative agendas vary from society to society. They are precise constructions imposed by cultural regulations and by societal restraints. Through normative agendas public every bit good as private experiences are & # 8217 ; scheduled & # 8217 ; or structured to happen at a specific clip and in specific fortunes. The programming of parentage, a private behaviour, is capable to a society & # 8217 ; s normative agenda. When and under what fortunes vary from one civilization to another, but no society leaves it strictly to biological opportunity. Furstenberg & # 8217 ; s normative agendas are direct consequences of the cultural limitations on life that Herbert Blumer explores in his book, Society as Symbolic Interaction. Harmonizing to Blumer, & # 8220 ; societal theoreticians have long recognized the cosmopolitan being of cultural limitations on reproduction & # 8221 ; ( Blumer pg.50 ) . A civilization & # 8217 ; s limitations on reproduction allow for the creative activity of parental normative agendas. In most societies where the normative agenda is followed, persons are allowed to see certain behaviours, such as parenting, through the private kingdom every bit long as the & # 8216 ; norm & # 8217 ; of the system is non disrupted. Harmonizing to Furstenberg, & # 8220 ; agenda breaks are normally disadvantageous & # 8221 ; ( Furstenberg pg4 ) . This is because cultural criterions are arranged in such a fixed place that any perturbation such as adolescent gestation creates an instability in the & # 8216 ; natural & # 8217 ; benefits of operating within the system. Adolescent female parents operate outside of their allowable, private, discourse in the normative agenda, therefore making an instability in the civilization. Normative agendas dictate persons & # 8217 ; proper topographic points and position in a civilization. Perturbations in cultural life, such as premature maternity, sometimes consequence in premature position passages, puting people into places for which they are unprepared or unable to presume because society is constructed to back up those who follow the normative agenda of life. Arthur Campbell in, & # 8220 ; The Role of Family Planning in the Reduction of Poverty & # 8221 ; expresses this thought in the undermentioned manner: The miss who has an illicit kid at the age of 16 all of a sudden has 90 per centum of her life & # 8217 ; s book written for her. Her life picks are few, and most of them are bad. Had she been able to detain the first kid, her chances might hold been rather different ( Campbell pg30 ) . Barrie Thorne in her essay, & # 8220 ; Feminism and the Family: Two Decades of Thought & # 8221 ; explores the thought of normative programming, the construct of maternity, and the effects of come ining this position through what she footings ideological concepts. Through this system one is introduced to repair features that he/she must order to in order to be accepted into any given establishment or community. Thorne would state adolescent maternity does non back up society & # 8217 ; s political orientation of the household ; instead it challenges it. Although early maternity does non back up the system, adolescent female parents are still female parents and hence capable to endure the branchings of being a female parent in our society. Harmonizing to Thorne, & # 8220 ; the political orientation of the household, more specifically maternity, has reinforced the economic development of all adult females & # 8221 ; ( Thorne pg6 ) . Therefore adolescent female parents are thrust, early, into an establishment of subjugation built on a construct of development and debasement, maternity. As a consequence, maternity is no longer looked upon as a private experience but instead as a public aberrance to cultural jurisprudence and takes on the character of a public job with negative consequences for the new female parent. Research suggests that early childbirth has negative effects for the female parent every bit good as the kid. However, the effects are non ever direct, alternatively it seems to trip a concatenation of events that undermine subsequently societal and economic development. An basically private behaviour, childbirth, has been transformed into a symbol of societal upset and the cause of other societal ailments. There are many direct effects on instruction, household size, and matrimonial position, and the indirect effects on economic position and public assistance dependence of teens who prematurely enter the position of maternity. The & # 8220 ; National Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experiences of Young Women & # 8221 ; is a survey of 502 immature female parents compiled by the U.S. Department of Labor and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The intent of this survey was to prove old research that associated early maternity with many societal and economic jobs. Unlike old surveies the NLS and PSID surveies attempted to find whether the accomplishments of immature adult females were inhibited by holding a first birth at a immature age or whether early childbearers were limited by personal and societal features other than their age at first birth ( NLS pg20 ) . This was done by commanding the societal, economic, and motivational factors of the immature female parents. The adult females being studied were between the ages of 14 and 24. These adult females were interviewed over the class of 5 old ages. Over this clip period extended information was obtained on the instruction and work experiences of the respondents, every bit good as on their societal and economic backgrounds. Research has documented the correlativity of premature maternity with less formal instruction ( NLS ) . The NLS and the PSID consequences show the impact of an early first birth on 1s formal instruction. Girls in the survey who bore a kid at 15 or younger completed merely nine old ages of school, those who had a first born at 16 or 17 completed ten old ages ( NLS ) . It is clear that the age of the female parent at the birth of her first Born is the strongest influence or one of the strongest influences on schooling. These statistics are complicated when you look at adolescent female parents who besides marry at a immature age. Many adolescent female parents see matrimony as a means to avoid some of the adversities associated with early maternity. Adan Chamul, 18, of Northridge, California had this deceptive outlook when, at 15, she married her seventeen-year-old fellow and dropped out of school as a consequence of gestation. Chamul, now 22, has merely begun to see the thought of re-entering school ( People pg.39 ) . Research suggests that the immature adult female who both has a kid and marries is the most likely to drop out of school. The immature adult female who bears a kid but does non get married is merely half as likely to drop out of school as the immature adult female who becomes a female parent and married woman. ( Moore pg.7 ) . Chamul, in her effort to make a better life, put herself and her kid at an even greater disadvantage. Presumably the worlds of Adan Chamul and other adolescent female parents makes it hard for them to recognize or even retrieve old ends, whatever they were. Education has no immediate bearing on being a successful female parent or a successful married woman. As a consequence, adolescent female parents are left playing catch up, scholastically with their ulterior bearing equals, who operated within the normative agenda. Their deficiency of instruction sets into gesture black kineticss, which finally will take them into disadvantageous places outside of the agenda. The size of household is besides set into gesture as a consequence of early maternity. Analysiss provide strong support for an association between an early first birth and higher subsequent births. Harmonizing to the National Council on Illegitimacy: Womans who have kids early in their lives have many fecund old ages left. In add-on, the low preventive effectivity feature of most adolescent female parents may lend to subsequent unplanned births ( The Double Jeopardy pg55 ) . To the extent that an early birth interferes with a female parent & # 8217 ; s instruction, the immature female parent has limited her scope of occupation chances to reasonably unattractive and ailing paid 1s. The immature female parent shortly realizes that her
civilization is non constructed to honor persons who step outside the normative agenda. This may take her to focus on all of her energies on maternity in an effort to harvest some of the benefits given to adult females in her same cultural position. Harmonizing to Keith Scott, writer of Teenage Parents and Their Offspring, “among female parents aged 35 to 52, those who were 15 or younger at their first birth have an norm of three kids more than adult females who were at least 24 when they became mothers” ( Scott pg101 ) . The limited earning ability of a ill educated individual female parent with a big household makes poorness a likely result, therefore doing her personal economic job a public societal job. Although it is obvious that instruction and household size is straight effected by early maternity, but does early maternity have any direct consequence on ulterior engagement in the work force and on net incomes for immature female parents? Harmonizing to Moore, writer of Teenage Motherhood, early maternity does non hold a direct consequence on the economic position of adult females ; instruction, experience, and household size are the most of import factors. Moore provinces, “although there are no direct effects indirect effects of early birth are anticipated” ( Moore pg55 ) . Since early childbearers tend to hold more kids, early childbearing indirectly effects work experience through its effects on household size. Womans who have larger households tend to usually roll up less work experience over their life-time due to rearing demands and work experience has a direct consequence on 1s economic position. Harmonizing to the ABA Journal a birth lessens the opportunity that a nonworking adult female will get down working and increases the likeliness that a working adult female will discontinue ( ABA Journal pg60 ) . A 2nd indirect consequence of an early birth arises from early childbearers’ lesser schooling ( Goldfarb pg 108 ) . Women with less schooling obtain occupations with lower socioeconomic position. Therefore, come ining motherhood early can be said to, indirectly, cut down women’s engagement in the work force and consequence their net incomes ; hence apportioning their proper topographic point and position in the normative agenda as that of really low societal and economic standing. Besides indirectly affected by early childbirth are female-headed households on public assistance. About half of all households headed by adult females are in poorness. ( Moore pg55 ) . Although adolescent birth does non look to be associated with later going caput of a household, a adolescent birth can increase the chance of public assistance reception indirectly in many ways. ( Moore pg58 ) . There is an association between early matrimony and matrimonial dissolution and since gestation normally precedes early matrimony, it may be viewed as holding an indirect consequence. Greater public assistance dependence is besides apparent of this household signifier. Harmonizing to statistics compiled by NLS female parents whose first kid was born outside of matrimony are more likely to have public assistance ; this association is stronger among younger adult females. Harmonizing to the National Journal, “almost half of unwed adolescent female parents go on public assistance within one twelvemonth of their baby’s birth and these female parents form the bulk of people with long-run public assistance dependency” ( Nat. Journal pg1 ) . Furthermore, the fewer old ages of schooling and comparatively big households of teenage female parents increase the likeliness of public assistance reception. As a consequence of operating outside of the normative agenda, adolescent female parents are indirectly forced by our ain federal authorities to populate good below the poorness line established by our society. This thought of economic subjugation is expressed in, “The War Against the Poor” an article by Thomas Sugrue. Harmonizing to Sugrue, “it is impossible to pay monthly rents, public-service corporation measures, and basic nutrient, vesture, and other disbursals on a meager public assistance cheque ( Sugrue pg.2 ) . Many public assistance receivers hold parttime versus full-time occupations to avoid losing their benefits and falling even further into poorness. Many would see public assistance as an establishment constructed to maintain those, female parents, who operated outside of their normative agenda literally on the exterior. To be on the exterior in our society is to hold limited entree to resources and political establishments. Adolescent female parents on public assistance are forced to run with an unequal distribution of power. The line graph below exhibits the correlativity between the direct and indirect effects of an early birth on ulterior socioeconomic results. In all, early childbearers, as a consequence of diverting from the normative agenda, seem to hold more troubles and endure more unhappiness. As a group they end up less good off than people who delay childbearing and run within their allowable discourse. One could besides reason that their kids would hold had easier lives if their parents followed society’s political orientation of the household. The critical issues in discouraging adolescent gestation seem to be 1s of pick, equal chance, and the initial public assistance of the female parents themselves. Make adult females truly become female parents at an early age out of pick? When implementing schemes to forestall early maternity one must measure whether adolescent female parents, prior to their gestation, were outside of their society’s normative agenda. Make early female parents come from already “non-normal” environments, and does an early gestation merely go on the rhythm of malnormity? Surveies suggest that their are multiple personal and societal deductions rooted in adolescent gestation. Social larning theoreticians have long speculated that teens form their feelings, ideas, and actions from detecting and copying others whom they perceive as appropriate function theoretical accounts, whether they are grownups or equals ( Rodriquez pg.685 ) . As immature teens approach the in-between stripling old ages there is force per unit area to conform. Teenss conform to suit into their encompassing environment ; therefore, if those around them operate outside of their allotted places, so to will they. Family relationships besides, indirectly, influence early gestation. The closer a household fits its society’s ideological constructs the less likely its members are to divert from their normative agenda. In order to battle adolescent gestation there is a demand to be after and implement plans in society that support normative agendas at an early age. This would offer a steadfast principle for beef uping communal and household life. A healthy household and societal background has the possible to blockade the rhythm of adolescent gestation.
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