Terrorism And The United States Essay, Research Paper
Muslim Terrorism and The United States
The Threat of Islamic Terrorism
With the prostration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990 & # 8217 ; s and the cold war over, the international community seemed to be on the threshold of an epoch of unprecedented peace and prosperity. Alternatively, a new series of jobs was created, like cultural struggles, arms proliferation, environmental jobs, population growing, drug trafficking, and terrorist act. Terrorism, as defined by Title 22 of the United States codification, subdivision 2656f ( vitamin D ) , is the & # 8220 ; pre-meditated, politically motivated force perpetrated against noncombatant marks by subnational groups or clandestine agents, normally intended to act upon and audience. & # 8221 ; Islamic terrorist act is a serious job for the United States because of the menace to national security, the safety of guiltless civilians, and the foundations of democratic societies throughout the universe ( 1997 Global Terrorism: NP ) .
Most of the Islamic universe views the West, particularly the United States, as the foremost perverting influence on the Islamic universe today. The Hizballah have taken this farther by labeling the Unites States as & # 8220 ; the Great Satan & # 8221 ; ( Sinha. ? Pakistan-The Chief Patron-Promoter of Islamic Militancy and Terrorism? : Neptunium ) . This turning animus the Islamic states feel toward the Western universe has been continually demonstrated by the addition in international terrorist act. However, Muslims do non see their actions as Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act, but self-defense and their spiritual responsibility. The Islamic extremist motions chief success or failure has been their ability to derive legitimacy from the general populace or from the greater portion of it in each Muslim state ( Paz 1998: Neptunium ) . During the past two decennaries, they have had tremendous success with their ability to show themselves to the Arab and Muslim universe as the true carriers of Islam. They appeal to the lower category due to the shared bitterness of affluent westerners while the in-between category and intellectuals are drawn toward these extremist groups in order to throw out imported political orientations and signifiers of authorities ( State Department. ? Anti-US Attacks? 1997: Neptunium ) . Extremist Islamic organisations have declared a holy war, Jihad, in order to convey the Arab universe together and take their topographic point as a universe power. In order to carry through these ends, these Islamic groups have chiefly used terrorist act as their chief instrument of persuasion.
The biggest and most active terrorist organisations are those which are province funded. These organisations act as both an overt and covert manner of distributing the patron states political orientations. The U.S. Secretary of State has designated seven authoritiess as province patrons of terrorist act: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria ( State Department. ? Over of State-Sponsored Terrrorism? 1997: Neptunium ) . These authoritiess support international terrorist act either by prosecuting in terrorist activity themselves or by supplying weaponries, preparation, safe oasis, diplomatic installations, fiscal backup, logistic and/or support to terrorists ( ? Over of State-Sponsored Terrorism? 1997: Neptunium ) .
Iran is one of the most active province patrons of terrorist act, affecting themselves in the planning and executing of terrorist Acts of the Apostless by its ain agents and by alternates such as the Hizballah. Tehran conducted 13 blackwashs in 1997, the bulk of which were carried out in northern Iraq against the government & # 8217 ; s chief resistance groups. An illustration occurred in January 1997, when Persian agents tried to assail the Baghdad central office of Mujahedin-e Khalq utilizing a supermortar. Despite countenances and foreign political force per unit area, Iran continues to supply support in the signifier of preparation, money, and arms to a assortment of terrorist groups, such as Hizballah, HAMAS, and the PIJ ( State Department? Over of State-Sponsored Terrorism? 1997: Neptunium ) .
Sudan is another big protagonist of terrorist organisations. The Sudanese Government supports terrorists by supplying paramilitary preparation, indoctrinization, money, travel paperss, safe transition, and safety. They besides condone many of the obnoxious activities of Iran, such as funneling aid to terrorist and extremist Islamic groups runing in and pass throughing through Sudan. Since Sudan was placed on the United States & # 8217 ; list of province patrons of terrorist act in 1993, the Sudanese Government still harbors members of the most violent international terrorists and extremist Islamic groups ( State Department? Over of State-Sponsored Terrorism? 1997: Neptunium ) .
The states of the in-between E have found terrorist act good for many grounds. First, terrorist act is an cheap option to contending a war, while still distributing their political orientation and progressing their political docket. However, supporting against terrorist act is really expensive ; the United States spends about five billion dollars yearly to guard against terrorist act ( Wilcox 1996: Neptunium ) . Random terrorist Acts of the Apostless cause a great sum of psychological harm to the mark country. Even though terrorist act putting to deaths comparatively few people, the random nature by which guiltless civilian are killed evokes a deep fright and insecurity upon the population. This signifier of terrorist act was successfully used to aim touristry and the economic system of Egypt in 1997. Publicity is another benefit of terrorist act. By affecting Acts of the Apostless which are designed to pull maximal promotion, terrorist act can convey the smallest group to the head of attending ( Rajeswari NP ) . All this is done while exposing the terrorist to minimal hazard when compared to war.
By in secret funding terrorist organisation, the frequenter province avoids the possibility of licking and does non look to be the attacker. Modern engineering has now made terrorist act an efficient, convenient, and general discrete arm for assailing province involvements in the international kingdom. Furthermore, terrorist act causes fear, unrest and craze among civilians of mark states which is the ideal scene to establish propaganda. Through propaganda frequenter provinces are able to form rebellions, putschs, and even civil war.
Throughout history terrorist act has merely been successful in protracting struggles, as in Ireland. However, engineering is invariably altering the nature of dangerous belligerencies by presenting more sophisticated devices that cause greater harm. No longer are terrorists restrained to simple auto bombs and explosives ; now atomic, biological, and chemical arms are going more readily available. The terrorist onslaught in Tokyo that injured 5,000 people is an illustration of this sort of terrorist act. The latest menace is the cyber terrorist, who can pervert a authoritiess computing machine system, steal money, and/or classified information while ne’er go forthing his house. Changing methods and techniques that terrorists employ today make menace of onslaught worse than of all time. First, terrorists operate at an international degree, no longer concentrating on a peculiar part or a state. The morning of the modern age of terrorist act day of the months back to September 5, 1972, when the Palestinian terrorists attacked the Israeli Olympic squad in Munich ( Rajeswari NP ) . Following this, there has been a period of highjacking of commercial air hoses, which culminated in the devastation of Pan Am 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.
Another new facet of terrorist act is the turning possibility of terrorists doing usage of arms of mass devastation? atomic, biological and chemical. Besides, the authoritiess have to believe earnestly about the menace of chemical arms and biological toxins. Both these types of arms are easy to fabricate but have dismaying after-effects on the civilian population. The Sarin gas onslaught in the Tokyo metro in 1995 by Aum Shinrikyo, the revelatory Nipponese religious order, showed that the menace of chemical terrorist act is now a world ( Sinha? Menace of Islamic Terrorism? : Neptunium ) .
For many old ages, it had been thought that arms of mass devastation did non function the intent of terrorists, and it was non mass slaying they wanted. But in the modern age of terrorist act, one sees a wider usage of powerful explosives that attack largely the civilian population, and handiness is the lone thing that prevents the usage of larger arms. This tendency towards larger onslaughts is represented by a 25-year depression in international terrorist act in 1996, with reported incidents down from a extremum of 665 in 1987 to 296 in 1996, there was a drastic rise in the figure of casualties ( 311 people killed and 2,652 wounded ) ( 1997 Global Terrorism: NP ) .
The 3rd facet of terrorist act that is new is cyber panic. It has become really easy to perforate the telecommunications and computing machine systems of states and besides private organisations, and enter new computing machine codifications that cause the system to shutdown or which make it accessible merely to the interloper. Terrorists use computing machines, cellular phones, and encoding package to hedge sensing and they besides have sophisticated agencies of hammering passports and valuable paperss. Similarly, they could even
introduce “morphed” images and messages into a country’s wireless and telecasting web, and spread prevarications that could motivate force. Technology promotion has made it possible to transport powerful explosive devices in a bag and detonate these at the right topographic point, at the right clip.
Another recent tendency in terrorist act is suicide bombing. Suicide bombardments have emerged as a tactic used peculiarly by extremist Islamic terrorists. Even though Islam prohibits suicide, these suicide bombers believe that decease in a holy battle assures them a faithful topographic point in Eden ; therefore, by perpetrating this act of war, they feel they are guaranteed to travel to heaven. This method of terrorist act is about impossible to support against, that is why the terrorists must be prevented, non deterred.
Many extremist Islamic terrorist organisations have developed in recent old ages, but the biggest organisations are the Islamic Jihad, Hamas, Al-Gama & # 8217 ; a ai-Islamiyyah, and the Hizballah. These organisations all seek the riddance of western and Judaic influence, and will non waver to make anything to forestall this ( State Department? Armed Islamic Group, IG: Neptunium ) .
The Islamic Jihad Group, in Egypt, has been active since the late 70 & # 8217 ; s, and presently includes two cabals. The end of these cabals is to subvert the Egyptian authorities and replace it with an Islamic province. To carry through this, the Jihad operates in little belowground cells and onslaughts high flat authorities functionaries. Their most ill-famed Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act have been the 1981 blackwash of President Anwar Sadat, the 1993 attempted blackwash of Prime Minister Atef Sedky and the 1993 auto bombardment of the World Trade Center ( ? Jihad Group? : Neptunium ) .
Al-Gama & # 8217 ; a ai-Islamiyyah, The Islamic Group, or IG, evolved from a phenomenon of Islamic captives in Egypt. After being released from prison in 1971, they began organizing activist groups that operated individually but were slackly organized. These groups target police officers, broad intellectuals, Coptic Christians, and touristry in order to ache the economic system and rid Egypt of Western influence. The IG & # 8217 ; s most recent onslaught was November 17, 1997, when 58 tourers were killed ; this badly wedged Egyptian touristry for several months ( The Islamic Group: NP ) .
Hamas is the Arab acronym for, & # 8220 ; The Islamic Resistance Movement, & # 8221 ; and means bravery and courage ( Al-Islamiyya: Neptunium ) . This organisation has evolved from the Muslim Brotherhood and was active in the early phases of Intifada, runing in the Gaza strip and the West bank. The chief aim of the Hamas is a & # 8220 ; Holly War & # 8221 ; for the release of Palestine and the constitution of an Islamic Palestine. A assortment of non-governmental charitable organisations in the Gulf States, four cardinal charity financess throughout the universe, and Iran have enabled Hamas to go the 2nd most powerful terrorist organisation. During Intifada, Hamas claimed duty for 43 onslaughts that killed 46 Palestinians, and is believed to be responsible for another 40 deceases ( Al-Islamiyya: Neptunium ) .
Hizballah, intending party of God, is an radical political-religious motion based in Lebanon. The motion was created and sponsored by Iran in July 1982, ab initio as a signifier of opposition to the Israeli presence in Southern Lebanon. Hizballah followings are extremist Shi & # 8217 ; ite which adhere to Khomeinistic political orientation. The rule ends established by Khomeinism are the equality of all Lebanon & # 8217 ; s citizens, complete American and Gallic backdown from Lebanon, the complete devastation of Israel, and the constitution of Islamic regulation over Jerusalem. The Hizballah has tried to carry through these ends through the usage of terrorist act, of which 704 onslaughts were committed from 1991? 1995 ( Information Division: NP ) . The range and nature of Hizballah & # 8217 ; s terrorist run reflect its close dependence on Persian support for both the ideological and fiscal levers. Iran donates fast sums of money to Hizballah, which among other things financess the motion & # 8217 ; s wellness and instruction services.The financess received from Iran in the 1980 & # 8217 ; s totaled $ 60- $ 80 million a twelvemonth ( Rajeswari: Neptunium ) .
Because of the onslaughts at the World Trade Center and foreign embassies in Africa, the United States is cognizant of the danger that terrorist act nowadayss. Bing a politically right state, no United States functionary has specifically named the extremist Islamic groups as our primary enemy. However, the Islamic groups are the lone terrorists that specifically aim Americans. The United States now has an official three portion counter terrorist act policy that has so far proved to be effectual.
First, the US will do no grant to terrorists and work stoppage no trades. If the US were to give in to terrorists & # 8217 ; demands, it would animate every other terrorist to perpetrate violent offenses. An illustration of this program is the surety state of affairs in Peru, where 72 sureties were taken and four months subsequently a successful deliverance took topographic point. The 2nd US policy is that all terrorist will be held accountable for their offenses in a tribunal of jurisprudence. In recent old ages many international terrorists have been convicted and sent to prison. The 3rd, and most of import policy is to insulate and use force per unit area on provinces that patron and support terrorist act and coerce them to alter their behaviour. UN countenances and the usage of military force are now actively used to coerce host states to alter their positions on terrorist act ( 1997 Global Terrorism: NP ) .
Extremist Islamic terrorist organisations have the ability and desire to endanger the United provinces. Sanctions and diplomatic bargaining will non work out the job of Islamic terrorist act, yet military force will merely do the job worse. There will be no declaration to this job in the close hereafter, meanwhile the spread between the Western universe and the Arab states will go on to turn. Without changeless monitoring a careful planning, this could shortly turn into WW III.
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