Text And Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction Essay, Research Paper
Text and Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction
Major events in Judaic history to the first century AD
1250 BC Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.
931 BC Divided Kingdoms.
721 BC Fall of Samaria.
587 BC Fall of Jerusalem, Babylonian imprisonment.
333 BC Jews under Hellenistic regulation.
63 BC Jews under Roman regulation.
70 AD Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.
Major events between 50 BC & # 8211 ; 100 Ad
63 BC & # 8211 ; 40 BC Hyrcanus2 regulations, but is capable to Rome.
41 BC & # 8211 ; 30 BC Antony Caesar Roman Emperor.
40 BC & # 8211 ; 37 BC Parathions conquer Jerusalem.
38 BC & # 8211 ; 4 BC Herod regulations as male monarch. Capable to Rome.
37 BC Jerusalem besieged for 6 months.
32 BC Herod Defeated.
31 BC & # 8211 ; 14 AD Caesar Augustus Roman Emperor.
19 BC Herod & # 8217 ; s Temple begun.
16 BC Herod visits Agrppa.
4 BC Herod dies ; Archelaus succeeds.
37 AD & # 8211 ; 41 AD Caliguta Roman Emperor.
41 AD & # 8211 ; 54 AD Claudius Roman Emperor.
54 AD & # 8211 ; 68 AD Nero Roman Emperor. The first tormentor of Christians.
66 AD Jews in Palestine tried to revolt. Were crushed by
69 AD & # 8211 ; 79 AD Vespasia Roman Emperor. He continued the persecution.
70 AD Judaic temple destroyed. Small portion of the wall left
79 AD Titus Roman Emperor.
Detailed analysis of major Judaic groups of the clip
Pharisees The Pharisees were a group of Jews, that believed strongly against the
acceptance of Greek ways. They wanted to continue and protect their delicate Judaic
civilization, from the Grecian influence that was deluging into Israel at the clip.
They developed as haters of the tradition Greek ways, because of their imposts
were related to idolatry and immorality. They joined up with a group know as the
Hasmoneans and proceeded to carry on a rebellion against the Greek. After deriving
spiritual freedom, they so separated from their new spouses, and formed the
breakaway party, known today as the Pharisees ( intending? the detached & # 8217 ; ) . They
had utmost power in the temple, and finally turned it into the centre of
the Judaic religion. This didn & # 8217 ; t last everlastingly, as it was eventually replaced by the
temple, erected by David.
Saducees The Sadducees ( Sons of Zadok ) seemed to be a group of blue
priestly households, that were powerful within the High Priesthood. They held a
monopoly over all the High Priesthood places and were besides powerful in the
Sanhedrin. They came across as being a really selfish group that retained their
rights and traditions, and besides seeking to remain on the good side of the Roman
Empire. Unlike the Pharisees, they were stiff and closed in religious order, and non open
to alter. When the Romans destroyed the temple, they disappeared and were ne’er
heard from once more.
Zealots The Zealots were a group of extremist extremists, that were the cause of
many rebellions throughout their history, and finally they lead a rebellion
against the Romans in 66-73 AD. To halt this, the Roman Emperor destroyed the
3rd temple, which lead to the terminal of the rebellion. This non merely take to their
ruin, but that of the Jews when they were crushed by Emperor Titus in 73 AD.
Qumrans/Essenes They were an of import Judaic group in the community around the
clip of Jesus. Although it wasn & # 8217 ; t until 150 BC until they emerged, they lived
their lives harmonizing to a rigorous set of beliefs and regulations. To fall in the group a
three twelvemonth provisional period was imposed to new comers. Members were bound to
maintain secret the philosophies and patterns. Its is believed that John the Baptist
was and Essene, and had high connexions to their community. The find of
the Dead Sea Scrolls has shed a batch more visible radiation on the patterns of the Essenes.
These finds have proved that some Christian qualities and beliefs are an
exact transcript of that of the Qumrans/Essenes.
Samaritans Samaritans originated from the country located between Judea and Galilee,
when the Assyrian colonists intermarried with the Jews that lived there. The
population created followed all the Torahs of Torah in their ain particular manner, and
considered themselves to be Judaic. The normal Jews did non accept this, as
exogamy between Jews and Gentiles was forbidden. Throughout the bible, it
has been documented that the Samaritans and the Jews were at each other pharynxs,
Analysis of major philosophical thoughts of the clip
Platonism Plato was an ancient Grecian philosopher who taught in the period
between 427 and 347 BC. He reasoned that the senses can & # 8217 ; t be trusted, and that
one must utilize ground and maths, to work out jobs and to steer oneself throughout
life. Plato was a pupil of Socrates and throughout his plants, he drew from
other Grecian doctrines, although as clip progressed, he developed an wholly
different philosophical signifier of believing that became his ain.
Aristotelianism Aristotle was a Grecian philosopher that was born about 400 twelvemonth
BC. During his well documented life, he served as the coach to Alexander the
Great and besides wrote many documents on assorted subjects such as Ethical motives, Physicss and
Metaphysicss. Aristotle besides developed theories on the human psyche in relation to
God. He represented it as a three of affair, being vegetable, carnal and human
in nature, and proposed a? non-abstract theory of signifier, where the instigator of
all being is acknowledged as God.
Epicureanism Epicurus set up a school in Athens that taught moralss, based on his
Hagiographas and sentiments, in the Hellenistic universe. He proposed that the chase of
felicity should be adult males greatest concern, instead than patterning his life on the
pleasing of Gods and of the workss needed to be completed for one to hold a
enjoyable hereafter. His doctrine was that the pleasance seeking of world,
would non merely supply fulfillment for one & # 8217 ; s ain ego, but besides lead to the
promotion and development of society in general.
Stoicism Stoicism was a celebrated school of Hellenistic idea. Its instructions were
non merely philosophical, but could be used by mundane people, in mundane life.
The chief end for the tradition was to achieve felicity and release from
emotion, through the chase of cognition and wisdom. We can pull many
comparings between the Christian religion and that of Stoicism. We can besides see
the influence that the tradition had on many of the late Christian theologists.
Mystery Cults/Religions The enigma cults originated from many topographic points in the
first century AD. They developed to replace the Olympic pantheons that were
going implausible and disappointing. The followings of these cults worshiped a
assortment of Gods or doctrines, each with their ain set of vague regulations and
rites. Secrecy played a great portion in these cults ( hence the name? enigma
faiths & # 8217 ; ) as one could incur the decease sentence by uncovering the enigmas
through address, dance, dumb show, or any other signifier of communicating. Although
one can debate the point of holding these faiths, it does turn out that the human
psyche requires some signifier of spiritual worship, mainstream or otherwise.
Gnosticism The Gnostics were a group/sect that existed in the first half of the
twentieth century, and were thought to take Christians astray by learning
uses of the Gospel. The assorted the thoughts of
the Christians with that of
the Greeks, bring forthing a faith that wanted release from the prison of this
universe. It draws on the Judaic monldthum, Babylonian anthology and Persian Deulum,
and believes that visible radiation and darkness are entwined in a changeless conflict of cosmic
First Century Roman Judea
Summary of major New Testament Christian Leaders
Peter Peter was one of the first, and major adherents. Peter & # 8217 ; s original name was
the Heb. Simon. His male parents name was Jonah. He worked as a fisherman at the two
topographic points of which he took abode: Beth-saida and Capernaum in Galilee. At these
topographic points he was in contact with the heathens. He was likely effected by John the
Baptist & # 8217 ; s motion. He was frequently the interpreter for all the of the followings
and friends. Before Pentecost it was Peter who took the lead function of educating
the people and prophesying the word of the bible. The church had made a big
impact on the community, but it was Peter that was seen to be the hero and
leader. He besides was the first apostle to be associated with the Gentiles. At
that clip in history this move was bound to pull him a batch of unfavorable judgment. Despite
this unfavorable judgment Peter with some support from his friends was able to do some
advancement in the credence of other racial groups. After the decease of Stephen,
Peter & # 8217 ; s whereabouts and activities became really scarce. At one phase he was
imprisoned at Jerusalem and so subsequently escaped. It has been thought that he
travelled through many metropoliss, taking many brief occupations and take parting in some
James James was one of the boies of Zebedee. Was a fisherman when called to
go one of the 12 apostles with his brother John. These two along with
Peter formed the interior circle of the apostles. This interior group was present at
most of the major events and were widely respected for their dedication and
sheer religion. James was good friends with Jesus and with his brother John, were
adeptly nicknamed Boanerges, that is, boies of boom. It was these two once more
that cause a splash when bespeaking Jesus for a topographic point in the Holy Christ & # 8217 ; s
Kingdom. The two were non promised this privilege, they continued to believe and
hold the religion that would, in theory, acquire them at that place anyhow.
John John was the other boy of Zebedee. Was the brother James ( the boy of
Zebedee ) . It is besides possible that John was the cousin of Jesus on his female parents
side. As with his Brother James, he was present at many really important events
on the history of Christianity. He was besides sent by Jesus to fix the concluding
base on balls over repast. John was the 1 that was likely the closest to Jesus, he was
trusted with duties that Jesus himself had given him.
James, brother of Jesus James was Jesus & # 8217 ; s younger brother who, along with his
other siblings, refused to accept Jesus & # 8217 ; s claims of authorization before his
Resurrection. He along with some of his close friends were a group which failed
to accept the power and authorization of Jesus before the Resurrection. The consequence
the Resurrection had on James was unmistakable. He became the leader of the
Jewish-Christian Church at Jerusalem. The tradition stated that he was placed
the first leader of the religion by the Godhead himself. He remained leader of the
Church, by himself, for some clip. He was still the leader when Paul visited
Jerusalem for the last clip. After having a decease by lapidating, James was named
the & # 8220 ; merely & # 8221 ; for his Judaic piousness. James is besides said to hold described himself as
& # 8220 ; a retainer of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ & # 8221 ; .
Paul ( Saul of Tarsis ) Paul was born in Tarsus a Roman citizen. After a simple
get downing Paul was merely effected by prophesying of Jesus after he had contact with
the risen Christ. Paul so spent the following three old ages prophesying in Damascus.
After some force per unit area from the Jews of the country, Paul fled to Jerusalem where he
met up with Barnabas. Barnabas so introduced Paul to the leaders of
Christian religion. His stay merely lasted a brief two hebdomads because several Hebrews were
seeking to kill him. Withdrawing for some ten old ages, Barnabas contacted Paul and
encouraged him to rejoin the now booming Gentile mission. Paul and Barnabas
were sent on a mission to set up Christianity in the country environing Cyprus
and the S Galatia. Despite several set dorsums and violent outbursts the mission
was really successful with new districts become adapt to the Christian ways. As
one would anticipate the relationship between the Gentiles and the freshly turned
Jewish community was one that was tested frequently. Differing beliefs lead to a
figure of verbal and physical struggles and Barnabas and Paul were called upon
to decide these. They used the aid and counsel of their seniors and fellow
Christians to assist with their determinations. Paul one time once more set off through parts
of Europe to change over people to Christianity. This clip Barnabas did non go
with him because of a rift in there relationship. Paul discovered new friend
that he took with him through Greece and the surrounding parts. He helped put up
a big sum of new mission which set the criterion for others to turn by. The
following country to converted was the lands of Asia. This end was rapidly accomplished
by Paul. He was so returned to Greece to assist procure the religion at that place. It was
in the old ages that followed that he wrote several stating letters. This letters
were to go a important portion of the Christian religion in old ages to come.
Judas Iscariot Judas was a member of the 12 adherents, and was the 1 who
betrayed Jesus, which ended in his crucifixion. The chance came about when
Judes turned Jesus to the governments. After the event, guilt was beset upon
this treasonist. Unable to over come this guilt, his life ended in self-destruction. Judas
is widely retrieve for his perfidy and treachery of the other 11 apostles.
He was thought of as a adult male who was touched by Satan and influenced into immorality
ways. He was bribed and accepted money to make evil workss. He claimed this money
would be used for the poor..
Barnabas Barnabas was born into a Jewish-Cypriot household. He a member of the
Jerusalem church, and as he progressed he became really serious about faith. He
besides had a important consequence on several affairs. He introduced a converted Saul
to the chief apostles, which lead to Saul being accepted after originally being
called an imposter. It was Barnabas who stuck up for the heathens when they were
being condemned. Barnabas thought the motion to accept the Gentiles as peers
was an act ignited by God and therefor took the side of God. Bing a cardinal member,
he took a journey with Paul from Cyprus, to Asia child, which was taken with the
end of puting up a group of successful Gentile churches. Barnabas was besides
placed in forepart of the Jerusalem council with Paul. Barnabas & # 8217 ; importance to the
issue is clearly shown by the mere fact that he is mentioned before Paul in
histories of the proceedings.
Puting the scene, Goosen & A ; Thomlinson & # 8220 ; Jesus ; Mystery and Surprise & # 8221 ; ( Sydney: EJ
Dywer, 1989 )
Doctrines, Elwell ( ed. ) & # 8220 ; Evangelical Dictionary of Theology & # 8221 ; ( Grand Rapids:
Baker Bookhouse, 1990 )
& # 8220 ; The New Bible Dictionary & # 8221 ; ( Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers Inc, 1962 )
Logos Bible Software v2.0 ( Oakharbour: Logos Research System )
World Book Encyclopedia
World Wide Web ( Internet )