The syllable is a double-faceted category

Lecture 6 ( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
1 )

THE SYLLABLE AS A PROSODIC CATEGORY. WORD-STRESS.

( C
& # 1051 ;
A
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
2 ) The syllable
is a double-faceted
class: segmental
and

non-segmental,

or suprasegmental,
or prosodic.
The footings “ suprasegmental ” , “ non-segmental ”
make non depict the phenomenon from the point of position of its construction.
The phenomena termed “ non-segmental ”
or suprasegmental
are characteristics that do non take part in the distinction of sounds, i.e. sections. These characteristics are referred to as prosodic
and the phenomenon itself is termed speech inflection. A
sound of address is produced non merely with the aid of articulative motions, but possesses such features as volume and pitch ; it ever lasts over some period of clip ( i.e. possesses some continuance ) . By and large talking, speech sounds have the same acoustic belongingss as any sound produced by a life being or thing. Yet, the prosodic characteristics of a speech signal are studied non for their ain interest, but because they play a function in making address vocalizations both from the point of position of their signifier and their significance.

( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
3 )
The acoustic parametric quantities of the address signal which do non take part in separating the segmental units & # 8212 ; phonemes – are the cardinal frequence of the voice, strength and continuance. They form the physical, acoustic, correlatives of the perceptible characteristics of length, volume and pitch. On the articuiatory degree greater volume is achieved by subglottal muscular accommodation which will make an acoustic consequence of increased amplitude. However, our perceptual experience of any of the prosodic belongingss is influenced by all the three parametric quantities because they are ever working as a construction, i.e. in combination.

Very small has been discovered so far about the articulatory belongingss of inflection.

( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
4 )
When we talk about the supra-segmental characteristics of affiliated address, we traditionally talk about address tune, emphasis, beat, pacing ( sometimes + pausation ) and about address timber.This is the
lingualreading of the acoustic and perceptible prosodic characteristics of address.

The first prosodic phenomenon that will be discussed today is emphasis,
and it is here, within this phenomenon, that the syllableshows its
lingual, phonological, maps. ( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
5 ) Thesyllable
is the
minimum bearer of prosodic contrasts

.

The typical function of the syllable is demonstrated by the possibility of word stress-pattern resistances such as [ ‘impo: T – im’po: T ] . The being of such resistances in a linguistic communication, in English, in peculiar, is a sufficient cogent evidence of the phonological function of the

2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress

phenomenon of emphasis and the phonological position of the syllable at the same clip. Therefore there are all evidences to province that the syllable as a prosodic unit performs a sense-distinctive function, every bit good as constituent and identificatory.

In English we can utilize the word ‘stress ‘
to mention by and large to the manner we emphasize something or give it prominence. So we talk about stressing ( or seting peculiar emphasis on ) a point: ‘I would wish to emphasize that ‘ … Here, evidently, we are mentioning to linguistic communication at the degree of discourse. But we besides use the term to mention more specifically to the sounds of address. If we listen to talk linguistic communication we can hear that certain elements seem to be given more prominence or accent. Apparently it is our cognition of the linguistic communication system that makes us pick out certain cues from the sound watercourse and ascribe to them the value ‘stress ‘ .

We need to be rather clear that the term ‘stress ‘ is used in two different ways. ( & # 1057 ; & # 1051 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1049 ; & # 1044 ; 6 } One usage is as a conventional label for the overall

prominence 0f
certain syllables over others.

The 2nd, and narrower, usage of the term ‘stress ‘ is concerned with the manner in which talkers really achieve this feeling of prominence, i.e. its physiological cause. ( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
. 7 )
In this narrower sense, emphasis refers to the muscular energy which goes into the production of a syllable.

In bring forthing the uninterrupted sound watercourse of address, . gym shoes do non maintain up a steady grade of articulative energy: over some stretches the energy degree in the articulatory and respiratory musculuss is higher than in others. It is of import to maintain in head that emphasis does non merely impact sounds
but whole syllables.
( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
8 )

Word emphasis( accentual
form ) .

( & # 1057 ; & # 1051 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1049 ; & # 1044 ; 9 ) The term “ emphasis ” is frequently replaced by the term “ accent ” . While these footings are frequently used interchangeably, there is besides an opposite attack, i.e. to know apart between the two impressions. There is yet another term – “ prominence ” , which is normally attributed to the perceptible consequence of emphasis.

The term “ speech pattern ” comprises both the production and perceptual experience degrees. An tonic syllable agencies both stressed by the talker and prominent for the hearer. The term “ accentual form ” has become widely used in phonic literature.

The common definition of the phenomenon of “ word emphasis ”
is “ the greater prominence of one syllable in relation to the other syllables of the word ” ( perceptible ) . What does the talker do to do a syllable prominent? ( What is the nature of prominence? )

2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress

Physically, emphasis means more energy applied to a syllable. But is it longer? Higher? Louder? The phonic nature of emphasis in different linguistic communications has much in common, yet there are still specific distinctive features. The acoustic nature of emphasis is complex and includes all the prosodic parametric quantities ( cardinal frequence, strength and continuance ) . At the same clip their function is non equal. Some parametric quantities may rule. Word emphasis in different linguistic communications is defined otherwise depending on the predominate parametric quantity in the creative activity of prominence. ( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
10 )
It can be

– quantitative
( when the predominant parametric quantity is length )

– musical
( when it is pitch )

– moral force
( strength, force of articulation )

– qualitative
( sound quality, spectral features of a sound ) .

It has ever been taken for granted that vowels in a stressed syllable are non reduced. This is why the qualitative
parametric quantity has non ever been taken into consideration. Obviously, for Gallic or Spanish, where there is decrease of vowels, practically, this parametric quantity does non play a important function. But for the intervention of English or Russian and Byelorussian word-stress it is of import to underscore the function of vowel quality for the creative activity of the consequence of prominence. The English word emphasis therefore is defined as dynamic
and qualitative.
Some writers argue that it is besides quantitative,
because stressed syllables tend to be longer every bit good, but this is non a consistent characteristic, e.g. in [ ‘pitid ] the unstressed [ I ] is longer than the stressed

[ I ] . Even if this or that ‘label ‘ is used to stipulate word emphasis in a peculiar

linguistic communication, it does non deny the fact that in world all acoustic parametric quantities interact, they are all involved. A -disputable point in the analysis of the phonic nature of word-stress is the function of cardinal frequence of the voice. Some phoneticians regard it as one of the cardinal characteristics of word emphasis. At the same clip, there exists another point of position: FF is non relevant for word emphasis acknowledgment. This point of view seems to be more consistent if we claim that word-stress and vocalization emphasis should be analyzed and treated as two different phenomena, although they surely have a common nucleus.

( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
11 )
The lone truly changeless characteristic of word emphasis, a characteristic that is ever at that place, is vowel quality. David Brasil uses the term“ protected ”

for the stressed syllables. The quality of a vowel in a stressed syllable is said to be “ protected ” . In unstressed syllables vowels areunprotected.

The full quality of a vowel in a stressed syllable is an obligatory characteristic. It is connected to greater muscular attempt, but we do non needfully necessitate to raise the pitch of the voice although in world we do this.

In existent address word s

braid is realised through vocalization emphasis. Word emphasis, purely talking, is a possible, an abstraction which is manifested in address by assorted signifiers, yet if we want to speak about word emphasis as a

2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress 3

phenomenon in its ain right, it must be eliminated from vocalization emphasis characteristics analysis.

Distribution of prominence. Location of emphasis within a word.
( CJIA

& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;

12 )

( CJIA & # 1049 ; & # 1044 ; 13 )

Languages differ in this regard. There is fixed
and free ( variable )
word emphasis. Languages of the fixed emphasis type have stress preponderantly on a given location in a word. Languages with variable emphasis enjoy more freedom for stress arrangement.

(
& # 1057 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1076 ;
14 )
Gallic, e.g. , is a linguistic communication where word emphasis is usually

fixed on the last syllable. The concluding syllable emphasis is an areal feature of Turkic linguistic communications, Persian linguistic communications and the Armenian linguistic communication. Other illustrations of fixed emphasis are Finnish and Czech, both with initial syllable emphasis, and Polish and Swahili, both with penultimate syllable emphasis.

( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
15 )
A comparatively little proportion of the linguistic communications of the universe allow a scope of different locations of emphasis: Dutch, English, Greek, Italian, Rumanian, Russian, Spanish etc. Here are some illustrations: English contact, rhenium act,
Russian & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ;,

& # 1076 ;

opo
& # 1075 ;
a,ca
& # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ;

Some writers say that in English word emphasis is free and fixed at the same clip. It is fixed in the sense that you can non alter the place of syllable prominence in any given word at will. We have to detect the forms that already exist. We can non take them harmonizing to the state of affairs, manner, etc. It is free in the sense that it can fall on any syllable.

( C
& # 1051 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
16 )
Although word-stress in English is free, it is possible to speak about basic types of accentualforms
and about basic accentual inclinations. These two facets are closely related, but should be kept separate. When we talk about inclinations, we are seeking to detect the grounds why this or that accentual form has emerged into being. Thereare semantic ( recessionary ) , recollective and rhythmic inclinations.

The
semantic ( recessionary )
inclination chooses the stressed syllable in the semantically prevailing morpheme. This is normally the root morpheme of aword, e.g. make up one’s mind, practical,
etc.

The retentiveinclination
histories for continuing emphasis on the samesyllable in derivative words as in beauty-beautiful-beautufy ; wonder-

wondrous.

The rhythmic inclination histories for the visual aspect of a 2nd emphasis in many English polysyllabic words. There is a inclination towards alternation between strong and weak syllables in address and, in peculiar, within a word. This is why it is non common of English to hold polysyllabic words with one emphasis merely. However, such words do be: e.g. attractively.

2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress

Rules for foretelling emphasis are based on the morphological construction of words, i.e. they presuppose a categorization of prefixes and postfixs into strong and weak harmonizing to their stress potency and it is besides based on the categorization of compound words harmonizing to the rules of their formation.

The efforts to work out regulations that would enable a scholar to foretell a word emphasis form are really popular in the current phonic scientific discipline. It is portion of productive phonemics.

Degrees of emphasis

( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
17 )
Phonetic prominence of a syllable in a word is comparative, i.e. compared with the predating one. But the talker of a peculiar linguistic communication is capable of categorising the existent phonic differences and separating the phonologically relevant 1s while disregarding those which are non relevant for word acknowledgment. Much of stress perceptual experience is done as expected, that is in expectancy of regular rhythmic beats or in analogy with other similar words.

( CJIA
& # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
18 )
The English word indivisibility
illustrates different grades of syllable prominence with an indistinguishable vowel [ I ] . Phonetically,

there are, in fact, as many grades of prominence as there are syllables in the word, viz. , seven. However, phonologically, there are merely three grades: merely one primary emphasis on Bi,
two secondary emphasiss – in, six
& # 8212 ; and the remainder of the syllables are termed as holding a weak emphasis, which might besides be called unstressed.

( CJIA & # 1049 ; & # 1044 ;
19, 20 )
Some writers besides distinguish third emphasis, which is every bit weak as secondary but has a different distribution: it follows the primary emphasis, while the secondary emphasis precedes it. LPD defines third
emphasis
as the location of a possible rhythmic round either after the primary emphasis, or between the secondary and the primary
( as in indivisibility ) .
Third emphasis is normally associated with American English words like research lab
[ ‘l ] , district
[ ‘t ] ‘ .

However, there are two by and large accepted grades of emphasis: primary
and secondary.
Is secondary emphasis relevant? Possibly, it is merely a phonic characteristic important merely for detecting the pronunciation norm. Possibly it does n’t count every bit far as the significance of a word is concerned. It is hard to supply illustrations of words where secondary emphasis entirely would take to a difference in significance ( e.g. to ‘undertake – to under’take ) . All lexicons

use the indicant of secondary
and primary
emphasis which shows, evidently, that this is a changeless and mandatory characteristic of English emphasis.

Primary and secondary emphasis are functionally different. We can see the difference clearly every bit shortly as we touch upon the issue of the relationship between word emphasis and vocalization emphasis. It will be seen that it is merely the syllable transporting primary emphasis that is capable of going atomic syllable on utterance degree. We will see that it is non the pitch degree that indicates the syllable as secondary or primary but its potency of going atomic.

2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress 5

Functions of word-stress

( CJIA & # 1049 ; & # 1044 ; 21 ) Word emphasis builds up the sound image of a word ; it shapes a word by doing one ( or more ) syllable ( s ) more outstanding than the others. This forming map of word emphasis is called ( 1 ) constitutive.
To stress the thought that the stressed syllable ( which is peculiarly true of Russian ) constitutes the Centre, the apogee point in a word, the map is called ( 2 ) culminaiive.
The recurrent emphasis form of the word helps the hearer to
recognize ( identify ) it in the flow of address, and the map is called ( 3 )recognitive ( placing ) .
And, eventually, the informations on fixed emphasis locations suggest that emphasis most normally marks off the terminal or the beginning of a word, and hence signals the terminal of a word ; the map is called ( 4 ) demarcative.

Less common but still important is the function of English word emphasis in meaning the morphological category of a word: there are over 300 minimum braces ( noun vs. verb ) which are distinguished by stress arrangement: ‘insult
& # 8212 ; to in’suit.
Compound words besides show the inclination for nouns to bear the primary emphasis on the first component and for the verbs and adjectives to hold it on the 2nd component: ‘ballet-dancer, fair-‘haired, to down’step.
This map may be called ( 5 ) morphological.
Stress besides has a ( 6 ) syntactic
map in separating between a compound noun, such as a ‘hot Canis familiaris
( a signifier of nutrient ) , and an adjectival followed by a noun, as in the phrase a ‘hot ‘dog
( an overheated animate being ) . Compound nouns have a individual emphasis on the first component, and the adjectival plus noun phrases have stresses on both elements.

Peculiarities ofEnglish
word-stress as compared toRussian and

Byelorussian

The overall feeling of greater emphasis in English is due to a greater contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables in pitch and continuance. It is the presence ofsecondary emphasis
that distinguishes the beat of an English polysyllabic word from a Russian word of the same length.

2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress