The Tibet Autonomous Region, covering an country of 1.22 million square kilometers, is situated on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the south-western boundary line country of China. It enjoys alone tableland environment. Averaging more than 4,000 metres in lift, it is ever regarded as the highest part in the universe and is known as “ the roof of the universe ” . Tibet abuts on Xinjiang, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan state. It has 3,842 kilometer boundary lines with China ‘s neighbouring states of Myanmar, India, Bhutan and Nepal every bit good as Kashmir in the South and West ( Zhang & A ; Zheng 2004 ) .
Tourism is playing an progressively important function in Tibet ‘s third industry. Even though these is alone natural and civilization touristry resources, touristry were developed in Tibet really tardily. Prior China ‘s reform and opening-up policies in 1978, there was about no touristry in Tibet. After about 30 old ages, touristry in Tibet has become much more developed, particularly after the Qinghai-Tibet railroad has been completed and operated. In 2008, there were 2,246,400 tourers sing Tibet, which bigger than the entire figure of tourers who went to Tibet between 1980 and 1997 ( China Tibetology Research Centre 2009 ) . ( Figure 2 )
Figure 2: Changes in Tibet ‘s Tourism Revenues and Number of Tourists Between 1980 and 2008
Beginning: Tibet Statistical Yearbook 2009
2.3 SWOT analysis
To understanding the features of touristry in Tibet and its internal strengths and failings and external chances and menaces, SWOT analysis will be presented.
Divers touristry resources. Tibet ‘s long history, glorious civilization and its alone tableland environment are all of import attractive forces of Tibet.
Regional strength. As China ‘s boundary line countries, Tibet boundary lines with India, Nepal, and Myanmar etc.
Political strength. The execution of the scheme for the development of the western part of China gave Tibet powerful political support ( Meng & A ; Huang 2007 ) .
Lack of overall scheme.
Poor substructure. The figure of hotels, travel bureaus and installations can non run into the turning demands of visitants ( Meng & A ; Huang 2007 ) .
Government support. The Chinese authorities non merely run some political relations but besides invest immense sum of money into touristry development of Tibet.
Huge demand of touristry market. Domestic touristry demand is turning and some restrictive factors impacting the touristry demand has been alleviated ( Meng & A ; Huang 2007 ) .
Economic development of China.
Relationship between development and protection
Figure 3: SWOT analysis of touristry in Tibet
2.4 Tourism market
These old ages, the figure of tourers sing Tibet zooms. Since 1980, the Tibet ‘s touristry market can be separated into three phases. First, from 1980s to 1990s, international visitants dominated the touristry market. However, from 1990s, domestic visitants increased quickly. For case, in 1996 the figure of international visitants is 2500 while as domestic visitants is 250,000 ( Tan 2006 ) . In 2004, the figure of visitants even surpassed one million. The 3rd phase is from 2006, when the Qinghai-Tibet railroad has been completed and operated. The figure of domestic visitants changed enormously, making five million in 2010.
2.5 Proposed growing value
3. Conveyance system in Tibet
3.1 Responsible bureaus and houses
The authorities of China is the chief organiser of the building of Tibet ‘s conveyance system. Since the initiation of the People ‘s Republic of China in October 1949, the province invested immense sums of financess in Tibet ‘s conveyance building. The transit within Tibet and between the independent part and other topographic points has been basically changed. Take Qinghai-Tibet Railway undertaking for case, the Central Government has invested around US $ 3.17 billion in it. In add-on to the investing, Chinese authorities besides drew up a series of new rules and policies to guarantee that the building of conveyance in Tibet will be processed swimmingly, among which the Western development scheme is the most important 1. With this scheme ‘s execution and the close attending of the regional authorities, great attempt has been taken to back up the development of Tibet conveyance system.
3.2 Existing conveyance system
Before 1949, there was no route in Tibet. Through the gorgeous mountains and huge tableland fields, trains journeyed on unsafe waies with heavy tonss. However, presently, the transit web is in topographic point, with main road conveyance as the chief portion, supplemented by rail and air transit.
Since the peaceable release of Tibet in 1951, the decennaries of building has brought Tibet four inter-provincial roads linking Tibet with Sichuan, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan. The major roads include Qinghai-Tibet Highway, Sichuan-Tibet Highway, Xinjiang-Tibet Highway, Yunnan-Tibet Highway and China-Nepal International Road. The travel paths inside the part are formed on a route web with the major roads and their subdivisions.
At the terminal of 2008, including these five national main roads, there are wholly 15 bole lines and 315 feeder lines in Tibet, and the entire length of the roads in the independent part reached 51,314 kilometers. Over 92 per centum of the township and about 72 per centum of the administrative small towns have been connected with roads.
Figure 3: Road Map of Tibet
Figure 4: Major Trunk Highways
From Xining in Qinghai to Lhasa in Tibet
Known as the “ lifeline ” of the independent part, the main road caries more than 80percent of goods into or out of Tibet. The 2,122 km main road is paved with asphalt. Rising over 4,000 metres above sea degree, it crosses the Kunlun and Tanggula mountains.
From Chengdu in Sichuan to Lhasa in Tibet
Widening 2,413 kilometer, the main road links Tibet with assorted states in southwest China
From Yecheng in Xinjiang to Ngari in Tibet
Widening 1,179 kilometer, it is the highest main road in the universe
Form Xiaguan in Yunnan to Mangkam in Tibet
The main road extends 315 kilometer.
Rom Lhasa to Friendship Bridge in Zham, Shigaze of Tibet to Kathmandu of Nepal
The main road extends 736km.
Although covering about one eighth of China ‘s land country, Tibet was antecedently the lone state degree part non accessible via railroad. Qinghai-Tibet railroad is the lone rail conveyance to Tibet. Before the gap of the railroad, visitants could merely make Tibet by air or route. This railroad measures 1963 kilometers from Xining, capital of Qinghai Province, to Lhasa, which is the universe ‘s most elevated and longest tableland railroad ( Cao & A ; Lin 2008 ) . Along the manner 965 kilometers of the railroad are located over 4,000 meters, over 600 kilometers traverse the perennial frozen tundra. At the highest point, the Danggula Mountain base on balls is 5,072 meters above sea degree. Therefore, Qinghai-Tibet Railway is frequently called as “ railroad on the rooftop of the universe ” . However, although it is more convenient and cost-efficient, it is the lone railroad to make Tibet.
Figure 3: Railway from and to Tibet
The air path over Tibet is the most efficient manner for communications between Tibet and the remainder of the universe. The first air path was started in Tibet in 1956, which is from Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan state, to Lhasa ( Pan & A ; Liu 2006 ) . Till now, air paths between Lhasa and metropoliss like Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Chongqing, Xi’an, and Guangzhou have been established. In add-on, the international air path between Lhasa and Kathmandu, Capital of Nepal, has besides been unfastened for traffic. However, there are merely five civilian airdromes in Tibet: Gonggar Airport of Lhasa, Nyingchi Airport, Bangda Airport of Qamdo, Ngari airdrome and Shigatse Airport, among which Ngari airdrome and Shigatse Airport were first put into usage in 2010.
Figure 4: Map of Tibet flight paths
Transportation system of metropoliss and towns
The metropoliss and towns in Tibet all have certain roads linking each other. But there are n’t many transit vehicles. It ‘s difficult to foretell which portion will be the toughest in a trip.
In Lhasa, Shigaze, Zetang and other larger metropoliss, mini-buses, taxis, or trikes can be chosen.
Buss with 35 seats run to all major touristry sites and the monetary value is ever 2 Yuan each individual with in the unban sphere.
There are now over 1,200 taxis in Lhasa and its suburbs. In the urban country, a trip by cab normally costs 10-15 Yuan.
In Lhasa, trikes will be from 2-5 Yuan for two individuals. They are found near the Barkhor Bazaar. In add-on, many hotels in Tibet can lease bikes.
Some scenic musca volitanss in Lhasa are non connected with coachs yet. Across Tibet, many vehicle companies and travel bureaus can assist tourists rent vehicles for long-distance journeys. The mean cost is 2.5-8 Yuan per kilometer and it differs harmonizing to the type and map of the vehicle and the status of the travel path.
Since Tibet ‘s uniqueA natural geographical andA economic retardation, its hapless conveyance substructure can non run into theA demands ofA the quickly growingA tourers. TransportationA restricts theA overall developmentA of touristry in Tibet.
A Transport infrastructureA is earnestly dawdling behind.
First, the entire length of route is short and the denseness of conveyance installations is low. The denseness of roads in Tibet is merely 3.36 kilometers each 100 square kilometer, which is the lowest state among the state, comparing 17.82 % of the mean denseness of national roads ( Cao & A ; Lin 2008 ) . These five chief main roads linking with other states in China are delicate and easy to be affected by natural catastrophes. In fact, among these five main roads, merely Qinghai-Tibet Highway can be unfastened throughout the old ages, others merely can be opened seasonally.
Furthermore, comparing with Tibet ‘s 1.22 million square kilometers of regional country, the figure of airdrome is excessively few. During tourer season, domestic paths are evidently deficient. The lone international air hose is from Kathmandu to Lhasa. Due to the lackA of other internationalA non-stop flights, most tourers have to take Beijing-Chengdu-Lhasa or Shang-Chengdu-Lhasa paths, which greatly increased the length of journey to Tibet and the airfare is considerable high.
Last, railroad line is individual. Qinghai-Tibet Railway is the lone railroad conveyance in Tibet. Since it was constructed on the norm of 4,500- 5,000 meter Tibetan Plateau, the care of it is unbelievable hard.
The development of transit in the regional country is uneven.
Tibet ‘s conveyance is concentrated in the comparatively developed in-between country. In contrast, A transit in southern Tibet and north-western TibetA is highly backward. Most of roads are in low quality, even delicate and easy to be influenced by natural catastrophe. Western Tibet is the most stray country. Some of countries are still undeveloped. It is pressing demand to better the conveyance conditions.
Low quality of conveyance services
The degree of conveyance services straight related to the tourers ‘ rating of finish ( Su & A ; Wall 2009 ) . Tourism transit services non merely include touristry undertakings, information of finishs and picks of conveyance, but besides include adjustment, catering and other related security during the procedure of travel ( Duval 2007 ) . However, when going to Tibet, there would be some job about traffic can non go on clip and some touristry undertaking and exact security information can non be provided to tourers.
In order to enable touristry transit to accommodate to the increasing demand of tourers in Tibet, effectual scientific schemes should be made to get by with above lacks and to guarantee the transit system in Tibet would hold farther betterment.
To run into the rapid development of touristry industry, it is necessary to spread out the size of conveyance web to further better the conveyance system. In footings of railroad conveyance, fulfil the capacity of railroad conveyance, use entree to and within the Tibet is of importance. It is proposed to build more railroads, like Yunnan-Tibet Railway, Gansu-Tibet Railway and Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The first regional railroad, Shigatse- Tibet was proposed to construct, which would be complete in 2014.
As for route conveyance, it is suggested to upgrade degree of roads, increase direction of care of roads to better disaster-combat capacity. In the national 12th five-year development program, regional authorities decided to do great attempts to develop route transit in Tibet. In the Fifth Central Discussion Meeting on the Work of Tibet, cardinal authorities besides decided to speed up building of route web, with Lhasa as the Centre, five State roads as the subdivisions, and the territory, county, township and boundary line defense mechanism roads as the footing. Presently, the lone manner from Lhasa to other tourer attractive forces is route conveyance. However, some private route accessing to attractive forces is in the hapless quality, which reduces the handiness and influences the tourers flow. Some scenic musca volitanss in Tibet are non connected with roads yet. Therefore, it is important to increase entree degree of these topographic points.
As to air conveyance, harmonizing to the rules of rational distribution, it is suggested to increase the figure of airdrome to integrate all major metropoliss and towns into national air routes web. With the increasing figure of tourer, it is necessary to open some paths to Hong Kong, Tokyo or New Delhi and some touristry developed metropoliss.
Better the serves of touristry transit. Harmonizing to the state of affairs of Tibet, touristry conveyance sector should better the degree of roads, choose convenient paths, and provide high quality agencies of conveyance. In add-on, multi-channel and multi-ticket engagement service should be provided to minimise transportation clip.