Viral, Protozoan, And Helminthic Diseases Of The Cardiovascular And Lymphatic Systems Essay, Research Paper
Viral, Protozoan, and Helminthic Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
Koch s posits are guidelines for finding that a specific micro-organism causes a specific disease. Koch s posits are as follows: 1. The same pathogen must be present in every instance of the disease. 2. The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure civilization. 3. The pathogen from the pure civilization media must do the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible research lab animate being.
4. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animate being and must be compared to the original pathogen.
Microorganisms can come in the organic structure in a assortment of ways. They can perforate the mucose membranes of the respiratory, GI, GU systems and the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the eyes. Microbes can easy be inhaled through the respiratory piece of land. They can besides be ingested in contaminated nutrient. Some micro-organisms enter the organic structure through the tegument. Some bugs, such as good luck worms, can tunnel through the tegument into the blood stream. Bacteria, viruses, and protozoon can travel through the tegument via a bite, cut, or other lesion ; this is called parenteral entry.
Bacterias have several devices which they use to perforate the host s defences. Some have capsules or proteins in the cell wall that prevent them from being phagocytized. Some can even reproduce in a scavenger cell. Bacteria can besides produced enzymes such as leukocidins to destruct neutrophils and macrophages and haemolysins that cause lysis in ruddy blood cells.
Bacteria harm host cells and bring on unwellness in two ways: direct harm and the production of toxins. Bacteria harm and destruct the host cells as they multiply. Bacteria besides produce toxins, which are substances toxicant to the host. They release exotoxins, which produce disease symptoms. Cytotoxins kill host cells or impact their maps. Neurofunctions interfere with nerve transmittals. Enterotoxins affect cells run alonging the GI piece of land. The decease of the bacterial cell or the presence of antibodies or antibiotics can trip the release of endotoxins. They can take to fever and floor.
Plasmids are DNA molecules in bacteriums that may transport cistrons for antibiotic opposition, toxins, capsules, and fimbriae. Lysogeny is bacteriums infected with viruses that can alter the virulency by changing the toxins or the capsule.
Viruss evade the immune system by turning inside the host cells, where the organic structure s defences can non make. They can easy occupy host cells because they have attachment sites for receptors on the host cell. Viruss can do cytocidal and noncytocidal effects ( cell decease and cell harm, severally ) . Other effects include the fillet of mitosis, lysis, cell merger, antigenic alterations, and transmutation of cells.
Fungus cause jobs in the host with capsules, toxins, and allergic responses. Protozoan and parasitic worms cause disease by harm the host tissue or by the wastes they produce. Some Protozoa can alter their surface antigens while turning so that the host s antibodies do non kill the Protozoa. Algae can be harmful to the host as some can bring forth neurolysins.
Nonspecific defence mechanisms are the organic structure s defences against any pathogen. The first defence of the organic structure is the tegument. Integral tegument is impenetrable for most micro-organisms. The protein ceratin in the tegument makes it immune to microbic invasion. Mucous membranes line the respiratory, GI, and GU piece of lands and are besides a barrier for occupying pathogens ; these can readily pin down bugs trying to come in these systems.
Phagocytosis is the consumption of micro-organisms by a cell. It is performed by scavenger cells and white blood cells. White blood cells, or leucocytes, are divided into three groups: granulocytes, lymph cells, and monocytes. During an infection, the figure of white blood cells additions, which is called leukocyosis. During an infection, leukocytes putting to death or effort to kill foreign bugs through phagocytosis. The scavenger cell attaches itself to a bug ; this can be achieved through opsonisation, or the coating of the bug with plasma proteins. The phagocyte extends its pseudopods around the other bug, steeping it in a phagocytic vas. The micro-organism is so killed by lysosomal enzymes or oxidising agents.
Inflammation is the organic structure s response to the cell harm caused by a pathogen. Signs of redness include inflammation, hurting, heat, swelling, and numbness.
Fever is a high organic structure temperature that consequences from a bacterial or viral infection. Bacterial endotoxins can bring on fever. A lifting organic structure temperature is called a iciness, and falling organic structure temperature is called crisis and is marked by sudating.
Antimicrobial substances are produced by the complement system. It is made up of a group of serum proteins that activate one another to destruct occupying pathogens. The full procedure can ensue in cell lysis, redness, and oponization.
Interferons are another anitmicrobial substance. They are antiviral proteins that are produced during a viral infection. They induce clean cells to bring forth antiviral proteins that will forestall viral reproduction. Interferons do non specifically kill a certain type of virus.
Specific defences of the host are defences designed to forestall an infection from a specific micro-organism. This defence is called unsusceptibility. It is the ability of the organic structure to antagonize the effects of foreign micro-organisms called antigens ; this is done through the production of specialised lymph cells and antibodies. It can be acquired after the patient has already contracted the disease, to a newborn kid from a female parent through the foetus, and unnaturally through a vaccinum.
The humoral or antibody-meditated immune system involves the production of antibodies by B cells in response to a specific antigen. Antibodies defend against bacteriums, viruses, and toxins in the blood and lymph.
The cell-mediated immune system relies on T cells and does non affect antibody production. Cellular unsusceptibility is a response to intracellular bacteriums and viruses, multicellular parasites such as parasitic worms, transplanted tissue, and malignant neoplastic disease cells.
The cardiovascular system is responsible for go arounding blood throughout the organic structure to present cells foods and to transports wastes off. It is made up of the bosom, blood, and blood vass. The bosom is a musculus that pumps the blood throughout the organic structure. Blood is made plasma, ruddy blood cells, or red blood cells, and white blood cells, or leucocytes. Plasma transports dissolved foods to cells and takes off wastes. Red blood cells carry O to cells. White blood cells play a function in the organic structure s defence against foreign micro-organisms. Arteries, venas, and capillaries comprise the web of blood vass in the organic structure, which transport blood off from the bosom, conveying blood back to the bosom, and distribute stuffs to and from blood to cells severally. The cardiovascular system has no normal microbiota.
The lymphatic system is made up of the lymph, lymph vass, lymph nodes, and lymphoid variety meats: tonsils, appendix, lien, and thymus secretory organ. Its chief map is to transport the plasma that leaks out to the infinites in between cells back to the blood stream. Lymph vass pick up this plasma, which is called lymph, and transport it back to the blood stream right before the blood reenters the bosom. All the proteins in the plasma is returned to the blood. As the lymph flows back to the blood, it flows through unit of ammunition constructions called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes contain macrophages that help clean the plasma of infective micro-organisms. Lymph nodes besides play a function in the immune system in that infective bugs will besides confront two sorts of lymph cells: the B cell which produces humoral antibodies and the T cell that destroys foreign bugs. The lymphatic system besides has no normal vegetations.
Many of the viral, protozoon, and anthelmintic diseases are found in tropical climes. These include xanthous febrility, malaria, and, more late, Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Many of them are besides transmitted through vectors such as mosquitoes and other insects.
One of the
more good known viral diseases is infective glandular fever, or normally called glandular fever. This disease is transmitted through the consumption of septic spit, whether by snoging or sharing drinks. The virus which causes glandular fever, the Epstein-Barr or EB virus, reproduces in the parotid secretory organs, which produce spit. The EB virus has an incubation period of 4 to 7 hebdomads before symptoms begin to look. Symptoms include febrility, sore pharynx, buboes, or conceited lymph nodes, in the cervix, and a general feeling of failing. Symptoms, nevertheless, do non look when immature kids contract the disease. The EB virus infects entirely B cells ; the infection causes them to transform into plasma cells. Cytotoxic T cells consider these plasma cells to be foreign encroachers and assail them. This causes the symptoms in patients. Infectious glandular fever is mostly non-fatal ; decease can be caused if the hypertrophied lien associated with the disease is ruptured during vigorous activity. There is no specific intervention for glandular fever. Recovery is complete within a few hebdomads with the patient holding complete unsusceptibility to the disease thenceforth. Testing for glandular fever is comprised of the sensing of antibodies against the EB virus. Mono can be found all over the universe including the United States.
Burkitt s lymphoma is another disease that is related to the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a cancerous tumour of the jaw that is most normally found in kids. Although the malignant neoplastic disease is non straight caused by the EB virus, research shows that it is closely associated with the tumour. Scientists still do non cognize how the virus could get down the tumour. Burkitt s lymphoma occurs as mosquitoes infect a individual with malaria. The malarial infection in bend weakens the immune system, doing the individual more susceptible to the EB virus, which is normally found. Burkitt s lymphoma can merely be found in Africa, where malaria is endemic. However, AIDS patients have besides been known to contract the disease because of their weakened immune systems
Yellow febrility is a viral hemorrhagic febrility. It is a zoonotic disease ; it appears merely in worlds from contact with its normal carnal host. It is caused by an arborvirus, the xanthous febrility virus, that is injected into the tegument by a mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Early symptoms of this disease are fever, icinesss, and concern followed by sickness and emesis. A phase called icterus follows. Jaundice is the yellowing of the tegument which is caused by liver damaged ensuing in the sedimentation of bile pigments in the tegument. This phase, obviously, gives xanthous febrility its name. Twenty per centum of the disease s victims die. Yellow febrility can be identified from either the symptoms or the presence of antibodies in the blood. There is no intervention for the unwellness. There is nevertheless a vaccinum for xanthous febrility ; it is a attenuated unrecorded viral strain. Yellow febrility can merely be found in such tropical climes as Central America, South America, and Africa. It can be controlled by mosquito control and immunisation of the population.
Dengue, or breakbone febrility, is a disease really similar to yellow febrility. It, excessively, is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is, nevertheless, a much milder disease, although the symptoms can be painful. Denegue is characterized by febrility, terrible musculus and joint hurting, and roseola and is seldom fatal. It can be found in the Caribbean and other tropical environments.
A different strain of the denegue febrility virus causes another disease called the denegue hemorrhagic febrility. This disease is chiefly found in Southeast Asia. It can bring on daze in a victim and kill in a few hours. Denegue hemorrhagic febrility merely attacks those who have antibodies against other strains of the denegue virus.
One emerging viral hemorrhagic febrility is caused by the now good publicized Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. Caused by the Ebola hemorrhagic fever filovirus, ebola foremost appeared in an eruption in Africa in 1976. The natural host is unknown, but the disease is spread by contact with blood, frequently through unsterilised acerate leafs. Ebola has a astonishing mortality rate of 90 per centum.
American trypanosomiasis or Chaga s disease is a cardiovascular disease caused by a whiplike protozoon called Trkypanosoma cruzi. It occurs in Southern Texas, Mexico, and Central and South America. The micro-organism is found on wild animate beings such as gnawers, phalangers, and armadillos. The protozoon is so carried to worlds by an insect vector called the assassin bug bug. The bug grows on the intestine of the insect and are transmitted if the bug defecates while feeding. T. cruzi is rubbed into the bite lesion by either the assassin bug bug or the bitten homo. The parasite amendss the bosom musculus and the nervousnesss commanding the actions of the gorge or the colon. These two variety meats can no longer transport nutrient and go enlarged, which is known as megaesophagus and megacolon. Designation of the disease is done chiefly by detecting symptoms. An option is xenodiagnosis. Parasite-free assassin bug bugs are allowed to feed on suspected patients. They look for the protozoon in the enteric piece of land of the bug 10 to 20 yearss subsequently. Treatment of Chaga s disease consists of chemotherapy if the patient is in the disease s early phases. However, if it becomes chronic, the disease becomes hard to bring around.
Toxoplasmosis is a cardiovascular and lymphatic system disease caused by the spore-forming protozoon Toxoplasma gondii. Cats are bearers of the disease. The protozoon can merely travel through its sexual stage in the enteric piece of land of a cat. Oocysts are left in the cat s fecal matters. It is transmitted to worlds by direct contact with the fecal matters or by eating undercooked meat from an animate being that has contracted toxoplasmosis from contact with septic cat fecal matters. The oocysts invade a host cell and signifier tachyzoits. These multiply quickly and finally do the host cell to tear, leting these parasites to occupy more host cells. Finally, the immune system becomes excessively overpowering for the Protozoa. Host cells so organize a wall protecting the Protozoa indoors, making a tissue cyst. These tissue cysts can stay in the organic structure for old ages. In a healthy individual, a toxoplasmosis infection may hold merely really mild to no symptoms. However, it can go lifelessly during gestation as it can do still birth or a kid with encephalon harm or vision jobs.
Malaria is a protozoon disease marked by the symptoms of icinesss, febrilities, and frequently purging and terrible concerns. These symptoms appear for 2 or 3 yearss, subside, and re-emerge 2 or 3 yearss subsequently. The mosquito Anopheles transports the Protozoa Plasmodium in its spit. The vector infects a individual with the sporozoite signifier of the Protozoa. The sporozoites travel through the blood stream and finally make the liver. There, they undergo reproduction in the liver cells and release merozoites. These infect ruddy blood cells. The merozoites reproduce. In making so, the ruddy blood cell ruptures, let go ofing more merozoites ; in add-on toxic compounds are released into the blood, doing the fit of malaria. The fits are the intervals of icinesss and fever a patient experiences. The febrility can make up to 104o F. A perspiration phase can happen after the febrility. Anemia can ensue because of the loss of ruddy blood cells, and expansion of the lien and the liver can besides do jobs. Young kids who contract malaria have the highest mortality rates. Peoples who survive malaria can derive a limited unsusceptibility ; they frequently have milder symptoms if they get re-infected. A vaccinum does non yet exist for malaria. In the yesteryear, malaria can be treated with the drug quinine, but newer strains have grown resistant to the drug.
Schistosomiasis is a enfeebling disease caused by a little good luck, a parasitic worms. The disease is caused by good lucks of the genus Schistosoma. The full life rhythm of this microogranism involves worlds. Ova from a Schistosoma from human wastes contaminate H2O. The egg hatches and becomes a larva, called miracidium. This so enters the organic structure of a snail. The parasitic worms so emerges from the snail in a signifier called cercaria. These can so perforate the tegument of a swimming or wading human. Then, the bugs are carried by the blood stream to either the liver or urinary vesica. The cercaria matures into grownup signifier, and a male and female green goods egg cell. The egg cell can do tissue harm called granulomas. Adult worms are unaffected by the human immune system. Schistosomiasis occurs in Asia, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean.