Welafre Essay, Research Paper
In November 1960, at the age of 43, John F. Kennedy became the youngest adult male of all time elected president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt had become president at 42 when President William McKinley was assassinated, but he was non elected at that age. On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot to decease in Dallas, Tex. , the 4th United States president to decease by an bravo & # 8217 ; s slug.
Kennedy was the state & # 8217 ; s first Roman Catholic president. He was inaugurated in January 1961, wining Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. He defeated the Republican campaigner, Vice-President Richard M. Nixon, by little more than 100,000 ballots. It was one of the closest elections in the state & # 8217 ; s history. Although Kennedy and his vice-presidential running mate, Lyndon B. Johnson, got less than half of the more than 68 million ballots cast, they won the Electoral College ballot. Kennedy therefore became the 14th minority president.
Because of the close ballot, election consequences were challenged in many provinces. The official electoral ballot was Kennedy 303, Nixon 219, and Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia 15.
Kennedy & # 8217 ; s Family
President Kennedy & # 8217 ; s great-grandparents immigrated to the United States from Ireland in 1858. They settled in Boston, Mass. His grampss, Patrick J. Kennedy and John F. ( & # 8221 ; Honey Fitz & # 8221 ; ) Fitzgerald, were born at that place. Both work forces became influential in province political relations. & # 8220 ; Honey Fitz & # 8221 ; served several footings as Boston & # 8217 ; s city manager and as a member of the United States House of Representatives. Patrick Kennedy was a powerful ward foreman and served in both houses of the Massachusetts legislative assembly.
Patrick & # 8217 ; s boy, Joseph, was a superb mathematician. At the age of 25 he became the youngest bank president in the United States. His luck continued to turn, and he was one of the few moneymans to feel the stock market clang of 1929. He made 100s of 1000000s of dollars.
Joseph married Rose Fitzgerald, girl of Honey Fitz, on Oct. 7, 1914. Their first kid, Joseph, Jr. , was born in 1915. John was born on May 29, 1917. Seven other kids followed: Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Edward ( called Teddy ) . All were born in Brookline, Mass. , a suburb of Boston.
Training Wages Off
Joseph Kennedy, Sr. , set up a million-dollar trust fund for each of his kids. This freed them from future fiscal concern and allowed them to give their lives to public good, if they desired. As the kids grew, their parents stressed the importance of competitory spirit. One of their male parent & # 8217 ; s favourite slogans was: & # 8220 ; Second topographic point is a loser. & # 8221 ; The thrust to win was profoundly embedded in the kids, and they ne’er did anything halfheartedly.
Their parents were careful to pretermit neither the rational nor the physical development of the kids. As they grew older, the kids would eat their eventide repasts in two groups, divided by age. Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy Ate at both repasts. This allowed them to discourse topics which were of involvement to each group. All the kids attended dancing school while really immature, and all, with the exclusion of Rosemary, loved athleticss activities. Rosemary did non take portion in bare-knuckle drama. The other kids, nevertheless, thrived on it. Even when they were grownups, one of their favourite interests was a arousal and frequently bruising game of touch football.
On pleasant yearss, Mrs. Kennedy took her kids for long walks. She made a point of taking them into church for a visit each twenty-four hours. & # 8220 ; I wanted them to organize a wont of doing God and religion a day-to-day portion of their lives, & # 8221 ; she said later in life.
With this background, it was rather natural for John Kennedy and his brothers and sisters to stand out in school and in athleticss. John attended public schools in Brookline. Subsequently he entered private schools in Riverdale, N.Y. , and Wallingford, Conn. In 1935 and 1936 he studied at the London School of Economics. Then he followed his older brother, Joe, into Harvard University. An first-class jock, John was a star swimmer and a good golf player. His athletic activities, nevertheless, were cut down after he suffered a back hurt in a Harvard football game. The hurt was to blight him subsequently in life.
John and his older brother were really near. While a immature male child, Joe said that someday he would be president of the United States. The household took him at his word. Of all the kids Joe seemed the 1 most likely to come in the political field.
Joseph, Sr. , was named embassador to Great Britain in 1937. John and his older brother so worked as international newsmans for their male parent. John spent his summers in England and much of the remainder of his clip at Harvard. The brothers frequently traveled to distant parts of the universe to detect events of international importance for their male parent. The clouds of World War II were vibrating over Europe at that clip.
Tax return to the United States and College
The senior Kennedy was a controversial embassador. His blunt comments about the advancement of the war in Europe earned him the disfavour of the English and of some of his countrymen in the United States. His household returned home in 1939, and he followed the following twelvemonth.
John finished his surveies at Harvard and was graduated with awards in 1940. Subsequently that same twelvemonth he did graduate work in economic sciences at Stanford University. He besides expanded a college thesis into a full-length book entitled & # 8216 ; Why England Slept & # 8217 ; . It dealt with England & # 8217 ; s unpreparedness for World War II and was based on John & # 8217 ; s ain experiences while working for his male parent. The book became a best marketer.
Serves with Navy in the Pacific
A few months before the Nipponese attacked Pearl Harbor in December 1941, John attempted to enlist in the United States Army. His old back hurt kept him from being accepted. After several months of exercising, he was granted a committee in the Navy. Finally he became the commanding officer of a gunman boat and saw extended action in the South Pacific.
In August 1943, during a dark action in the Solomon Islands, John & # 8217 ; s torpedo boat was rammed and cut in half by a Nipponese destroyer. The force of the hit threw him to the deck, reinjuring his dorsum. Despite this, he gathered the 10 members of his crew together. One of the crew members was so severely injured that he was unable to swim. He was put into a life jacket.
Kennedy gripped one of the jacket & # 8217 ; s straps between his dentitions and towed the adult male as the crew swam to a nearby island. It took them five hours to make it. For his gallantry, Kennedy was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps decoration, the Purple Heart, and a commendation. The back hurt, nevertheless, put him out of action for the balance of the war.
About one twelvemonth after John & # 8217 ; s narrow flight, Joe, Jr. , a Navy pilot, was killed when his plane exploded in the air over the English seashore. To his brother & # 8217 ; s memory John wrote & # 8216 ; As We Remember Joe & # 8217 ; , a aggregation of testimonials. In 1948 John & # 8217 ; s sister Kathleen died in an aeroplane clang in the South of France. She was the widow of the marquis of Hartington of England. He excessively had been killed in action during World War II, while taking an foot charge in Normandy, France.
Begins Political Career
The decease of his brother profoundly affected John Kennedy. Before the war Joe had decided to transport on with his aspiration to come in political relations. This caused a certain grade of letdown for John, because he excessively had considered that field. He felt, nevertheless, that one Kennedy in political relations was plenty and determined to go a correspondent. After his discharge from the Navy he worked for a short clip as a letter writer for the Chicago Herald American and the International News Service. In 1946 he decided to come in political relations. To the household this was the most natural thing for him to make.
For his first mark, Kennedy chose to seek for a place in the United States House of Representatives. He would stand for the 11th Massachusetts Congressional District. His household rallied to his side as he began his run for the nomination. Because the 11th territory was preponderantly Democratic, the campaigner for the office would hold no problem being elected one time he had gained the nomination. Kennedy and his household worked indefatigably. Their attempts, Kennedy & # 8217 ; s ain impressive war record, and his household & # 8217 ; s political background greatly aided his run. He easy defeated eight other campaigners running for the same nomination.
In office, Kennedy rapidly established himself as a reasonably independent mind. Occasionally he voted against proposed steps which had met with the blessing of his ain Democratic party. He was reelected in 1948 and 1950. An complete speechmaker, the immature congresswoman became a popular talker.
His back hurt, nevertheless, continued to trouble oneself him. He frequently appeared on the House floor and at speech production battles supported by crutches. In 1946 he was named by the United States Chamber of Commerce as one of the state & # 8217 ; s outstanding work forces of the twelvemonth.
Elected to the Senate
In 1952 Kennedy decided to run for the United States Senate. His opposition was Republican senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Again the Kennedy household worked side by side to acquire John elected. Kennedy defeated Lodge by more than 70,000 ballots. The triumph was peculiarly impressive because across the remainder of the state Republican campaigners were swept into office along with the landslide of ballots for the new Republican president, Dwight D. Eisenhower.
In the Senate Kennedy had woolen textile duties raised and urged President Eisenhower to obtain an understanding with Japan to cut fabric imports. The president agreed to make so. Kennedy helped go through several other steps of import to Massachusetts & # 8217 ; fabric industry. He besides sponsored measures which improved his province & # 8217 ; s preservation plans.
One of the many commissions Kennedy served on was the Select Committee of the Senate to Investigate Improper Activities in Labor-Management Relations. His younger brother Robert was main legal advocate for this group. The two Kennedys were often in the public oculus in 1959 as the commission investigated racketeering among top labour brotherhood functionaries. John sponsored a labour measure which did a great trade to extinguish condemnable patterns in brotherhoods.
Wednesdaies Long Island Beauty
Kennedy met his future married woman, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, at a Washington, D.C. , party shortly after his election to the Senate. Described as a cameo beauty, Jackie was the girl of a Long Island household. At the clip they met, she was a lensman and a pen-and-ink creative person for a Washington, D.C. , newspaper. They were married on Sept. 12, 1953. Their girl, Caroline, was born in 1957. Their boy, John Fitzgerald, was born on Nov. 25, 1960, 17 yearss after Kennedy was elected president of the United States. As married woman of the president, Jackie became one of the most gracious and most beautiful White House hostesses.
Jackie was born on July 28, 1929, at Southampton, Long Island. She attended several private American schools and the Sorbonne, in Paris, France. She was graduated from George Washington University, in Washington, D.C.
Kennedy & # 8217 ; s old back hurt still gave him a great trade of hurting. Get downing in October 1954 he underwent a series of spinal operations.
While he was recovering in 1955 he decided to compose a book he had been contemplating for several old ages. It was a series of portrayals of eight of the most brave senators in the state & # 8217 ; s history. Entitled & # 8216 ; Profiles in Courage & # 8217 ; , it became a best marketer and won Kennedy the 1957 Pulitzer award for life.
Girls Vice-presidential Nomination
During his run for the 1960 Democratic nomination, Kennedy frequently began his addresss with this comment: & # 8220 ; Thankss for non voting for me in 1956. & # 8221 ; That was the twelvemonth he hardly missed being nominated vice-president on the Democratic ticket. Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, who won the nomination, and Adlai E. Stevenson, the presidential campaigner, were defeated in the election. Had Kennedy won the nomination and been defeated in the election, his opportunities for the presidential term might hold been lost.
The Presidential Nomination
Following the 1956 national election, Kennedy began an luxuriant run for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. His popularity increased. In 1958 he was reelected to the Senate by a border of some 874,000 ballots, more than any other Massachusetts senator had of all time received. His brother Robert managed John & # 8217 ; s senatorial run. In 1958 Teddy, the youngest of the Kennedy household, worked with Robert in pull offing John & # 8217 ; s run for the Democratic nomination.
In the early months of 1960 Kennedy entered and won seven primary elections across the state. At the 1960 Democratic convention in Los Angeles he received his party & # 8217 ; s nomination on the first ballot.
During the run Kennedy and Vice-President Richard M. Nixon met in four nationally televised arguments. It was by and large conceded that these telecasting visual aspects helped Kennedy more than Nixon.
Problems Confronting the New President
As Kennedy took office, cold-war tensenesss between Communist and Western states increased. Communist forces pushed into Laos and threatened South Vietnam. The new president pledged strong attempts to hold the spread of Communism. Toward this terminal, he created a Peace Corps of immature Americans to work in developing states.
After the Soviets successfully launched the first adult male into outer infinite in April 1961, Kennedy asked for a greatly increased budget for infinite research. This new stage of the cold war was called the & # 8220 ; infinite race. & # 8221 ; The first United States manned infinite flight was in May.
In the spring of 1961 the Bay of Pigs near Havana, Cuba, was invaded by oppositions of Cuba & # 8217 ; s Communist Prime Minister, Fidel Castro. The Rebels were defeated rapidly. The invasion had been aided by the United States Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) . Kennedy was criticized by some for holding approved the CIA & # 8217 ; s support of the invasion. Others blamed him for the operation & # 8217 ; s failure. Kennedy met with Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union in Vienna in June to discourse the German inquiry. The conference did non change Communist ends. The Berlin Wall was built in August
Domestic and Latin American Affairs
At place Kennedy won Congressional blessing of a figure of his proposals, including greater societal security benefits, a higher lower limit pay, and assistance to economically down countries in the state. The 23rd Amendment to the Constitution was ratified early in Kennedy & # 8217 ; s disposal. It gave the occupants of Washington, D.C. , the right to vote in presidential elections.
In March 1961 Kennedy proposed an international economic development plan for the Americas. The charter for the plan, called the Alliance for Progress, was ratified in August by the Organization of American States ( OAS ) .
Events of 1962
In March 1962 Kennedy used his influence to acquire a steel-industry pay colony by and large regarded as noninflationary. Early in April, nevertheless, several companies announced additions in their steel monetary values. Kennedy reacted strongly. He exerted unusual force per unit area by switching authorities orders to equal steel makers and by endangering cases against the companies that were trying to raise their monetary values. Within four yearss the monetary value additions were canceled.
Kennedy & # 8217 ; s most of import legislative success of 1962 was the transition of the Trade Expansion Act. It gave the president wide powers, including authorization to cut or extinguish duties. The act was designed to assist the United States compete or trade with the European Economic Community ( EEC ) on equal footings. Kennedy & # 8217 ; s medical attention undertaking was defeated in Congress. Under this program certain infirmary disbursals for most aged individuals would hold been paid through the societal security system.
In October 1962 Kennedy faced the most serious international crisis of his disposal. Aerial exposure proved that Soviet missile bases were being built in Cuba. Declaring this buildup a menace to the states of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy warned that any onslaught by Cuba would be regarded as an onslaught by the Soviets and the United States would revenge against the Soviet Union. He besides imposed a quarantine on ships conveying violative arms to Cuba. Negotiations were carried on between the president and Khrushchev. By the terminal of November the missiles had been shipped back to the Soviet Union, the United States had lifted the quarantine, and the month-long crisis had abated.
The Civil Rights Crisis of 1963
In 1963, clangs between the constabulary and showing inkinesss in Birmingham, Ala. , and elsewhere, particularly in the South, induced the president to emphasize civil rights statute law. Kennedy & # 8217 ; s new civil rights message included measures to censor favoritism in topographic points of concern ; to rush up integration of public schools ; and to stop favoritism in the hiring of workers on federal building undertakings.
An understanding to put up a Teletype nexus between Kennedy and Khrushchev was signed in June 1963. This limited, but assuring, accomplishment was intended as a safeguard against war by accident or misreckoning.
The president besides paid increasing attending to beef uping the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) . Visiting Europe early in the summer of 1963, he conferred with authorities leaders in West Germany, Italy, and Great Britain. In West Germany, the president pledged that United States military forces would stay on the European continent. Kennedy besides visited Ireland, from which his great-grandparents had emigrated to the United States.
A limited atomic trial prohibition pact was signed by representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Britain in the summer of 1963. The understanding permitted belowground atomic trials, and signatory states could retreat after 90 yearss & # 8217 ; notice. Kennedy called the pact a & # 8220 ; triumph for mankind. & # 8221 ;
Mrs. Kennedy gave birth to her 2nd boy, Patrick Bouvier, on Aug. 7, 1963. Born prematurely, the baby died after merely 39 hours of life.
In November, looking frontward to the 1964 presidential election, Kennedy made a political visit to Florida and Texas, the two most thickly settled Southern provinces. His married woman, Vice-President Johnson, and Mrs. Johnson accompanied him on the Texas trip.
He had been warned that Texas might be hostile. In Dallas, merely a month earlier, Adlai Stevenson, United States embassador to the United Nations, had been spat upon and struck with a lookout & # 8217 ; s poster. In San Antonio, Houston, and Fort Worth, nevertheless, the crowds were friendly, and evidently delighted with the capturing immature Jacqueline Kennedy.
Kennedy Is Assassinated
A big and enthusiastic crowd greeted the presidential party when it arrived at the Dallas airdrome on the forenoon of November 22. Along the path of the motorcade into downtown Dallas the people stood 10 to 12 deep, claping heartily. Following to the president in the large unfastened limousine sat his married woman. In forepart of them, on leap seats, were John B. Connally, the governor of Texas, and his married woman, Nellie. The 3rd auto in the emanation carried Vice-President and Mrs. Johnson. As the autos approached a ternary subway, Mrs. Connally turned around and said, & # 8220 ; You can & # 8217 ; Ts say Dallas doesn & # 8217 ; t love you, Mr. President. & # 8221 ;
At that minute three shootings rang out. The president, shooting through the caput and pharynx, slumped over into his married woman & # 8217 ; s lap. The 2nd slug hit Governor Connally, piercing his dorsum, thorax, carpus, and thigh. A newsman, peeking up, saw a rifle easy disappear into a sixth-floor corner window of the Texas School Book Depository, a text edition warehouse overlooking the main road. It was 12:30 PM in Dallas.
President Kennedy died in Parkland Memorial Hospital without recovering consciousness. The clip of decease was set at 1:00 PM.Governor Connally recovered from his multiple lesions.
Six proceedingss after the shot, a description of a adult male seen go forthing the text edition warehouse went out over the constabulary wireless. At 1:18 PM flatfoot J.D. Tippit stopped and questioned a adult male who answered the description. The adult male shot him dead. At 1:35 PM Dallas constabularies captured Lee Harvey Oswald in a motion-picture theatre, where he had hidden after allegedly killing flatfoot Tippit.
Although a mass of circumstantial grounds, including ballistic trajectories trials, pointed to Oswald as the killer of President Kennedy, the 24-year-old professed Marxist and Castro sympathizer ne’er came to test. On Sunday, November 24, as he was being led across the cellar of the City Hall for transportation to another prison, Jack Ruby ( born Rubenstein ) , a Dallas cabaret proprietor, broke through a cordon of constabulary and shooting Oswald. The slaying was committed in full position of telecasting cameras as 1000000s watched.
The Return to Washington
The coffin bearing Kennedy & # 8217 ; s organic structure was removed to the presidential jet plane, Air Force One, where Lyndon B. Johnson took the curse of office as president of the United States. Merely 98 proceedingss had elapsed since Kennedy & # 8217 ; s decease.
All that long afternoon and into the early forenoon of the following twenty-four hours, Mrs. Kennedy refused to go forth her hubby & # 8217 ; s organic structure. Close by her side at all times after her return to Washington, D.C. , was her hubby & # 8217 ; s brother and closest advisor, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. Mrs. Kennedy carefully directed the inside informations of the funeral, confer withing with historiographers as to the traditional entombment processs for other presidents who had died in office.
Burial at Arlington
The organic structure lay in rest for a twenty-four hours in the East Room of the White House. On November 24, in a grave emanation to the slow round of dull membranophones, the coffin was removed to the rotunda of the Capitol and placed on the catafalque which had borne President Abraham Lincoln & # 8217 ; s coffin.
The undermentioned twenty-four hours the funeral emanation moved from the Capitol to the White House and so to St. Matthew & # 8217 ; s Cathedral. Here Richard Cardinal Cushing, Roman Catholic archbishop of Boston, celebrated Low Mass. From the White House to the cathedral, Mrs. Kennedy walked in the emanation between her hubby & # 8217 ; s brothers, Robert and Edward. In a scene unduplicated in history, 220 foreign leaders followed them.
Burial was at Arlington National Cemetery, on a hillside overlooking the Potomac and the metropolis of Washington. At the decision of the service Mrs. Kennedy lighted an ageless fire at the grave.
Two Kennedy babies were subsequently reburied on either side of their male parent. They were Patrick Bouvier and an nameless girl who was stillborn in 1956.
On June 8, 1968, the Kennedy household and a host of other grievers once more gathered at the Kennedy grave site & # 8211 ; this clip for the entombment of Robert F. Kennedy. The president & # 8217 ; s brother, who had become a United States senator, was shot on June 5 in Los Angeles, Calif. , while runing for the Democratic presidential nomination. He died on June 6 of encephalon harm. Sirhan Bishara Sirhan, a Jordanian immigrant who was seized at the scene of the shot, was finally indicted for the slaying.
For the 2nd clip President Johnson declared a twenty-four hours of mourning for a Kennedy. Many of the same Americans who honored Robert Kennedy & # 8217 ; s memory on June 9, 1968, were unhappily reminded of an earlier twenty-four hours of bereavement.
In his announcement declaring Nov. 25, 1963, a National Day of Mourning for John Kennedy, President Johnson paid this testimonial to the slain president, citing in decision from Kennedy & # 8217 ; s inaugural reference of January 1960: & # 8220 ; As he did non shrivel from his duties, but welcomed them, so he would non hold us shrivel from transporting on his work beyond this hr of national calamity. He said it himself: & # 8216 ; The energy, the religion, the devotedness which we bring to this enterprise will illume our state and all who serve it & # 8211 ; and the freshness from that fire can truly light the universe & # 8217 ; . & # 8221 ;
On Nov. 29, 1963, President Johnson created the President & # 8217 ; s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy to look into and describe on the facts associating to the calamity. It functioned neither as a tribunal nor as a prosecuting officer. Chief Justice Earl Warren was appointed president.
Other members of the bipartizan committee were Senators Richard B. Russell of Georgia and John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky, Representatives Hale Boggs of Louisiana and Gerald R. Ford of Michigan, Allen W. Dulles, and John J. McCloy. J. Lee Rankin was the general advocate. The study was published on Sept. 24, 1964.
Since Oswald was unable to stand test and support himself, and in equity to him and his household, the committee requested Walter E. Craig, president of the American Bar Association, to take part in the probe and to rede the committee whether the proceedings conformed to the basic rules of American justness.
The committee found that the shootings that killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no grounds at that clip that either Oswald or Jack Ruby was portion of any confederacy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. No direct or indirect relationship between Oswald and Jack Ruby had been uncovered. On the footing of the grounds before it, the committee concluded that Oswald acted entirely. Despite the findings of the committee, confederacy theories persisted for decennaries.
The committee criticized both the Secret Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) . Some of the progress readyings and security steps in Dallas made by the Secret Service were found to hold been lacking. In add-on, though the FBI had obtained considerable information about Oswald, it had no official duty to mention this information to the Secret Service. & # 8220 ; A more carefully coordinated intervention of the Oswald instance by the FBI might good hold resulted in conveying Oswald & # 8217 ; s activities to the attending of the Secret Service, & # 8221 ; the study stated.
The committee made suggestions for improved protective steps of the Secret Service and better affair with the FBI, the Department of State, and other federal bureaus. Other recommendations were:
That a commission of Cabinet members, or the National Security Council, should reexamine and supervise the protective activities of the Secret Service and other bureaus that help safeguard the president.
That Congress follow statute law that would do the blackwash of the president and vice-president a federal offense.
That the representatives of the saloon, law-enforcement associations, and the intelligence media set up ethical criterions refering the aggregation and presentation of information to the populace so that there will be no intervention with pending condemnable probes, tribunal proceedings, or the right of persons to a just test.
Mills, Judie. John F. Kennedy ( Watts, 1988 ) .
Reeves, T.C. John F. Kennedy: The Man, the Politician, the President ( Krieger, 1990 ) .
Schlesinger, A.M. , Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House ( Greenwich, 1983 ) .
Selfridge, J.W. John F. Kennedy: Courage in Crisis ( Ballantine, 1989 ) .
Summers, Anthony. Conspiracy, rpm. erectile dysfunction. ( Paragon, 1989 ) .
Waggoner, Jeffrey. The Assassination of President Kennedy: Opposing
The JFK Story