It Comes To Langu Essay, Research Paper
Muamer BajricMrs. MooreEnglish II2 June 1997 Why Is The World So Diverse When It Comes To Languages? It is known, even to a individual to whom the full survey oflanguage International Relations and Security Network & # 8217 ; T familiar, that the linguistic communication is the greatest factoron which most of the human activities depend. Without any signifier oflanguage, any cooperation and communicating would be about, if nottotally impossible ( World Book Encyclopedia 62 ) . This significanceof linguistic communication is what draws scientists to analyze beginning, differencesand connexions between linguistic communications. Changeless alteration of today & # 8217 ; s linguistic communications is what amazes linguistseven more. With the emergings of the new states there was quite anumber of new linguistic communications. One such instance is the linguistic communication of FormerYugoslavia, Serbo-Croatian, which is now called Croatian by Croats, Bosnian by Bosnians, and Serbian by Serbs. Though these languageswere one time united and really idioms of one another, they splitas the three states split. With this came immense sums of newwords in Croatian and Bosnian which caused the Serbo-Croatian torupture even further. There are few conditions that keep a linguistic communication unchanged. Theyinclude a stable authorities, good communicating, a centralizededucational system, a set of beliefs and traditions, and a spiritof national integrity ( 63 ) Beginning And Change of Language Today & # 8217 ; s languages all have three basic systems, phonemics, grammar, and semology, and many have 4th system, composing. In the beginning, people talked and conversed, but they neededsomething that would enter and subsequently on callback words ( Sparke 42 ) .This destitution has resulted in early alphabets, pictograms.Pictures were used to stand for objects and points. It was easy forpeople to stand for those objects with the pictograms but it alsowas really difficult to happen a pictogram that would carry through thought of, forexample, hungering ( Laind 50-54 ) . Around 1000 B.C. , the Phoenicians were the first people to usegraphic marks to stand for single address sounds ( AmericanHeritage Dictionary 65 ) . Their alphabet is the foundation oftoday & # 8217 ; s Latin and Cyrillic alphabets used in most Indo-Europeanfamily linguistic communications. Phoenician letters looked truly different thanLatin and Cyrillic. The Cyrillic alphabet is the first to emerge since Greeks haveborrowed Phoenician symbols foremost. Most of the marks have beenchanged when they entered Greek. Romans excessively needed some sort ofsymbols for their linguistic communication, so they excessively used Phoenician letters, but via Greeks. Romans changed them how they wanted and createdLatin ; Greeks altered them their manner and created Cyrillic. Thougharrived from one common beginning, these two alphabets areconsiderably different from each other. This illustration of how acommon lineage can be changed and consequence in several differentprogenies is a really interesting thought which is investigated by thelinguists. There is a theory that today & # 8217 ; s linguistic communications are so descendantsof distinguishable & # 8220 ; parent & # 8221 ; linguistic communications. For illustration many scentists areserious when they talk about base on balls Indo-germanic linguistic communication that isthe beginning of about 50 linguistic communications including English and Gallic. ( Colin 112 ) . Linguists hypothesize that all through history there wereplenty of grounds for linguistic communication alteration. One such is a theory oftribe motion, which states that when a folk enters a particularterritory and settees at that place for longer clip, it will influencepeople non originally from their folk to get down talking thattribe & # 8217 ; s linguistic communication. The best manner to exemplify this is to give a description of oneof the possible ways of what happened in Europe during such amovement. Early in history, people used to populate in north-centralEurope. Looking for nutrient and better topographic point to populate, they enteredsouth Europe, France, Spain, Britain, and reached all the manner toRussia, Persia, and Indian subcontinent. But on their manner, forsome ground, they didn & # 8217 ; t touch Finland and Estonia, and went aroundHungary. This hypothesis can explicate the tremendous similitudebetween the linguistic communications of about all of the Europe, Iran, and India.It besides can give as an account sing the unusual languageisolation when it comes to Hungarian, Estonian and Finnishlanguages ( Davidson 28-29 ) . Sometimes the alteration doesn & # 8217 ; t necessarilly ensue in creative activity ofnew linguistic communication. It may besides happen in development of bing grammarand addition in vocabulary. Sometimes it ensues in local idioms, that are still a portion of larger linguistic communication, though, in some instances, contain huge unsimilarities with it ( World Book Encyclopedia64 ) . Other grounds for linguistic communication alteration might hold been initialmigration, clime, and elect laterality. The initial migration is truly a name for motion of peoplefrom Africa 100,000 old ages ago. Surviving hints of this migrationinclude Basque, Caucasian, Khosian, ans Australian linguistic communications. Climate, excessively, is a possible cause of linguistic communication dispersal.Global warming several thousand old ages ago opened parts north of54th analogue to innovators whose linguistic communications developed into thefamilies known as Ural-Yukaghir, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, Eskimo-Aleut, and Na-Dene. All the differences and similarities have prompted linguists tocreate alleged linguistic communication households. Language households are groupsof linguistic communications that appear to hold common features. Linguistsdecide which linguistic communication should belong to which group by comparing thewords with the same significance in different linguistic communications and by comparingthe grammar and phonic characteristics. Word female parent in Latin is mater ; in German murmur ; in Swedish moeder ; in Bosnian majka/mati. Whenlinguists compared these words they realized that there was acommon ascendant of these linguistic communications & # 8211 ; Indo-germanic linguistic communication. They have found glosss between other universe & # 8217 ; s languagesaswell. By making that have created a twelve different languagefamilies. Some of the major 1s, besides Indo-European group, areIndo-Chinese, Hamito-Semitic, and Ural-Altaic ( Davidson 30-31 ) . Traveling back to beginning, linguists wonder what were the firstwords. Harmonizing to Guinness & # 8217 ; Book of Records, the linguistic communication withthe largest vocabulary is English, but the inquiry is how 620,000words English consists of came to being ( Young 249 ) . It is thought that the first words were created by caveman andcavewomen who described mundane everyday, or other similar event by
the agencies of sound. One of those events could be hitting theirheads when they tried to acquire up from the floor or kiping place.The extraordinary hurting would do them to remem
ber this situationby creating a particular word or sound for it. So when they werein similar situation again, they would yell out that word or sound.Another example would be imitating the animal sounds and by thatgiving them the names and identifying them in the future (Laind21). These may have been the ways of how the word was invented.When more words were invented, “people may have gone on ratherrapidly to invent more and more.” We can assume that the mostnecessary words came first–warnings, commands, names of things andactions–and later on abstract words–names for ideas and emotions(23). Power of Language “Language has been called the most powerful drug known tohumanity. The words we hear and speak can have a distorting affecton our points of view” (”Words, Thoughts and Deeds” 1).For huge amounts of words this idea is applicable. Political termsare exceptionally tricky. For example, word “democracy,” has started the biggest wars ofthe century. Both World Wars were fought for people to be free.In the World War I, Great Britain, France and U.S. fought againstGermany, Turkey and Italy. Democracy against expansionism. In theWorld War II, again Great Britain and U.S. against Germany, Italyand Japan. In this case it was democracy against Naziism andmilitarism. Vietnam War was fought “to stop communism fromexpanding,” and to save democracy throughout the world. Words have been used to create different stereotypes aboutone’s ethnicity or religion. Words have divided humans into white,black, red, and yellow. When a person says “n***r,” peopleautomatically think of a black man who is criminal, not thinkingthat their race is full of criminals, too. Words have been responsible for some of the most horriblecrimes of humanity. Naziism got it’s start by calling names.Their leader, Hitler, was known in history as the “master orator”,since he managed to turn so many German people against the Jews.”He knew how to pick the ‘right’ words for his purposes and toarrange them in slogans, which utterly overwhelm nonconformity withparty doctrine.” Third Party Languages With today 6000 languages and dialects, the attempt to uniteour divided world has been virtually impossible. The multiplelanguages in one country have also been a problem for humancommunities. More times the language has been used to partition aparticular country, than to unite it. Since this is a serious problem, third language is often usedin relations between two countries. Those languages are oftencalled linguae francae, which in Italian means Frankish language,named after a mixture of Italian and other languages used duringthe Middle Ages. Linguae francae are often used in trade and politics. The bestknow lingua franca in politics is probably English, since it isused, along with French, as an official language of United Nations.English is frequently used in peace talks and in sporting events,such as Olympic Games. In a country where many seperate languages and dialects arespoken, one language may be chosen as the lingua franca of commerceand government. One country like that is India, where, even though15 languages are constitutionally recognized, English serves asthird party language. Other examples include Mandarin Chinese andSwahili, a Bantu language spoken throughout East Africa (LinguaFranca 1). Creole languages are trully phenomenons, when it comes tolinguistics. They are fully formed languages that develop frompidgin (trade) language and gradually become the primary languageof a linguistic community. Basically pidgin and creole languagesmean the same. Pidgin language becomes creole when it becomes acommunity’s language, replacing community’s original language. About 15 million people speak creolized languages throughoutthe world. Their vocabularies are often derived from Europe’smajor languages. Some of those creole languages are French-basedCreole in Haiti, Mauritius, and Dominica; Gullah language in east-central coastal states of U.S.; Jamaican Creole; Krio; PidginEnglish et al. (Creole 1). Artificial languages are one more way to abate the differencesbetween languages and misunderstandings those differences create. Since 17th-century, there has been an enormous number ofartificial languages introduced. An interesting example was thelanguage Solresol, developed by Jean Fran ois Sudre in 1817. Allits words were formed of combinations of the syllables designatingthe notes of the musical scale (Artificial Languages 1). One recent attempt is Hans Freudenthal’s Lincos, intended as aprogram for establishing communication with extraterrestrialintelligent beings should they be located. “Although some natural languages have been widely used aroundthe world at various times as a common means of communication amongspeakers of various languages, it is uncertain that any onelanguage will ever be adopted universally.” English and French aredifficult to learn and are too closely identified with particularnational groups. Basic English, proposed in 1932, was an attempt to remedy thefirst impediment by reducing the vocabulary to a core of 850 words.For example, enter is replaced by go into, and precede by go infront of (Artificial Language 2). But of all the artificial languages, Esperanto is the mostpopular. It has a highly regular system of word information, withroots drawn from French, English, German, Latin, and Russian. Asimple and consistent set of endings indicates grammaticalfunctions of words. Thus, for example every noun ends in o, everyadjective in a, and the infinitive of every verb in i (Esperanto1). It was presented in 1887 by its creator Ludwik Lazar Zamenhof.Esperanto has about 2 million speakers in about 80 countries.However, in China it had the greates impact. It is though inuniversities and used in many translations. Judging by that, ithas fulfilled its function. Why is the world so diverse when it comes to languages? was athe title question. There were many reasons why as explained inthis project. Historic, political, and economic reasonsinterchange at this subject. We know how language is important tous, but we also have faced some situations where language wasneither pleasant or kind. Those include wars, political disputes,killings, name calling. All of these should have been eliminatedlong time ago, but since they are still here we all should work onthose differences. Language is very powerful, but it shouldn’t beused in above mentioned situations.